Polysaccharides are carbohydrate molecules formed from long chains of monosaccharides. All polysaccharides contain glucose. Humans, animals and plants synthesize polysaccharides and store them for food or structural support, or metabolize them for energy. Some common examples include plant starch, glycogen and cellulose.Know More
Polysaccharides may range from linear to highly complex in structure. There are two types of plant starches: amylose and amylopectin. Amylopectin is branched while amylose is not.
Amylose is a helical chain made of glucose monomers, bonded together by glycosidic linkages. Amylose can be found in plants such as potatoes and used as a primary energy source for humans. Amylopectin can also be used as a primary energy source for humans.
Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide found in animals. It is similar to amylopectin but is more highly branched, and its molecules are tighter. Glycogen can be used by humans as an energy source.
Cellulose has a beta acetal linkage which separates it from starch. It is a major component in plant cell walls. Humans lack the appropriate enzymes to break down beta acetal linkages and therefore cannot digest cellulose. In its undigested form, it is used in aiding the smooth working of the human intestinal tract. Cellulose can also be found in wood, paper, cotton and linen.Learn more about Chemistry
Glycogen is a polysaccharide that is the storage form of glucose in the human body. Glucose is an important biomolecule that provides energy to cells throughout the entire human body. Humans derive glucose from the foods that they eat. When they are running low on glucose, glycogen can be utilized as a glucose source.Full Answer >
The V formation, a common pattern in migratory birds, isn't symmetrical because each bird only needs to position itself at the wingtip of the bird in front of it to capitalize on the upward-moving air. One line of the V shape could easily grow longer because of the single-file focus.Full Answer >
Red blood cells maintain normal morphology and chemical exchange rates in isotonic solutions. A cell is in an isotonic solution if the osmotic pressure inside the cell is equivalent to the osmotic pressure of the solution surrounding the cell. Plasma is the primary isotonic solution for red blood cells.Full Answer >
The mechanism for the esterification of vanillin involves the chemical combination of vanillin and acetic anhydride, which is catalyzed by either an acid or a base. This reaction results in the formation of two types of esters: monoester and triester.Full Answer >