According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, polysorbate 60 is a food additive most commonly used as an emulsifier to keep oil and water from separating in dessert toppings and imitation coffee creamers. Polysorbate 60 is often found in baked goods and frozen desserts for moisture retention.Know More
Polysorbate 60 is formed by reacting a mixture of stearic acid, sorbitol and ethylene oxide. It comes in the form of a yellow paste for easy mixing with oil and fats. Its addition to imitation coffee creamers allows the water-based coffee and the oil-based creamer to mix thoroughly. Natural creamers usually separate from coffee because oil and water do not mix.
According to the FDA, polysorbate 60 is safe for consumption. When it is used as an emulsifier in dessert toppings, polysorbate 60 is commonly mixed with one or all of the following additives: sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 65 or polysorbate 80. However, the amount of polysorbate 60 cannot exceed 0.4 percent of the final weight of the topping. When used in baked goods, polysorbate 60 is commonly added along with sorbitan monostearate or polysorbate 65. In this case, when used alone or in combination with the other two additives, the amount of the additive cannot exceed 0.46 percent of the cake mix’s final dry weight. Polysorbate 60 is also known as PEG-60, TWEEN-60 and polyoxyethylene-(20)-sorbitan monostearate.Learn more about Chemistry
Most plastics are made from oil. Oil is a long-chain hydrocarbon, meaning that it is composed of long chains of carbon molecules. These long chains of carbon molecules give plastic its characteristic strength and flexibility.Full Answer >
Polypropylene is produced from liquid or gaseous propene, which is derived from gas oil, naphtha, ethane and propane. The process of creating polypropylene from propene is known as polymerization.Full Answer >
Because motor oil does not crystallize, or solidify, at any temperature, it technically does not freeze, though motor oils at cool or freezing temperatures (32 degrees Fahrenheit or below) will begin to thicken, losing the viscosity that allows the oil to flow and lubricate, making them ineffective and increasing the risk of damage to engine parts. One solution to this issue is to use synthetic oils, which, according to the motor oil manufacturer Mobil India, has shown resistance to thickening in cold temperatures as low as -40 degrees Celsius. On the other hand, crude oil will become quite thick and tar-like as it is cooled, with the substance becoming increasingly thick as it cools.Full Answer >
Crude oil mainly consists of hydrocarbon molecules, but impurities, such as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, arsenic, vanadium, copper, nickel, sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride, are also present. The hydrocarbon molecules include straight chains, branched chains and rings.Full Answer >