A pond ecosystem is a freshwater ecosystem in which communities of organisms rely on each other and the water environment for their nutrients and survival. Pond ecosystems have both abiotic and biotic components.
The abiotic components are formed by the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials. Basic abiotic components are water, oxygen, calcium, carbon dioxide, salts and nitrogen. Many organisms get their nourishment from the abiotic components.
Biotic components of a pond ecosystem include producers, consumers and decomposers. The producers consist of macrophytes and phytoplanktons. The consumers are heterotrophs, meaning they depend on other organisms for their nutrients. Most decomposers are saprophytes, but some are parasites.