The mesophyll cells in a plant leaf play a vital role in photosynthesis by enabling the gas exchange portion of the process, and through the actions of their specialized chlorophyll-containing organelles, called chloroplasts, in which the primary photosynthetic reactions take place. Because they are surrounded by intercellular air pockets, the mesophyll cells are able to perform a gas exchange when the stomatal pores in the leaf's epidermis open. The Greek term "mesophyll" means "middle leaf," and it reflects the mesophyll cells' location between the leaf's thinner and much stiffer upper and lower epidermal layers.
The mesophyll cells make up what is known as a plant's assimilation tissue, which refers to the primary location of photosynthetic reactions. In the majority of flowering plants and in ferns, the mesophyll tissue is comprised of two layers: the palisade layer and the spongy layer. The palisade layer lies directly beneath the upper, or adaxial, epidermal layer and contains vertically elongated mesophyll cells. The cells in this layer contain a greater number of chloroplasts. These mesophyll cells also have air spaces between them that make it possible for the cells to absorb carbon dioxide.
The spongy layer of mesophyll cells lies below the palisade layer and contains larger air spaces that enable carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse through the cell walls during photosynthesis and respiration. To enable the exchange of gases in and out of the plant, the stomatal pores in the epidermis lead into substomatal chambers, which connect to the intercellular air pockets between the mesophyll cells in the spongy layer.Learn More
Cellular diffusion is the process that causes molecules to move in and out of a cell. Molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. When there is a higher concentration of molecules outside of a cell, then more molecules enter the cell than leave. When there is a higher concentration of molecules inside of a cell, then more molecules leave the cell than enter.Full Answer >
Cell differentiation describes the process by which a cell is destined to become a particular type of cell, according to the Department of Biology at Kenyon College. The zygote is a cell formed from the union of sperm and an egg and is considered totipotent, meaning it can develop into any type of cell in the body. The first few cell divisions from this zygote are also totipotent.Full Answer >
Cellular respiration is directly related to breathing, as breathing provides the necessary oxygen molecules for the process of cellular respiration to take place; cellular respiration is a process by which cells acquire energy. The oxygen provided by breathing is used as a final hydrogen acceptor for the process, explains Antranik.org.Full Answer >
Spirogyra cells contain chloroplasts, a large vacuole, a cell nucleus, cytoplasmic strands holding the nucleus in place and two cell walls. They are simple plants, with no specialized cells for absorbing water, transporting nutrients or reproduction.Full Answer >