The principle of electrophoresis states that in the presence of an electric field, a charged particle moves toward the region of an opposite charge. When the particle has unequal charge distribution in its chemical bonds, it aligns on the electric potential.
An electrode is any conducting material that creates an electrical field to allow current to pass through. The positive end of an electrode is called an anode while the negative end is called a cathode. When a negatively charged particle travels along an electric field, it tends to migrate toward the anode and move against frictional force. The bigger the particle, the slower it moves.
In the fields of molecular biology and biochemistry, electrophoresis is a useful analytical technique where macromolecules of varying sizes and densities are separated. Complex proteins and nucleic acids that undergo electrophoresis move through a gel matrix that is primarily composed of polymerized agarose or polyacrylamide. Agarose is a polysaccharide that forms a gelatin-like substance when dissolved in boiling water. Polyacrylamide is a type of solid gel created by polymerization of acrylamide solutions through the addition of ammonium persulfate coupled with tetramethylenediamine.
Agarose gel is mainly used for separating complex protein molecules and DNA or RNA fragments. Larger molecules get trapped against the porous material while smaller particles pass through easily. Modern researchers prefer the use of polyacrylamide gel. Other forms of gel electrophoresis include isoelectric focusing, 2D electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis and western blotting.Learn More
There are several ways to distinguish real gold from fake gold, also called fool's gold, such as the presence or absence of shine, external color and weight. Genuine gold typically retains its shine in shade and in light; this is usually the quickest way to determine whether a stone is one of true gold or is made of pyrite, which is the element that creates fool's gold.Full Answer >
A haloform reaction is a chemical reaction during which a methyl ketone is halogenated by chlorine, bromine or iodine in the presence of a base to form a haloform. A haloform is an alkyl halide.Full Answer >
Phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator used to test the pH of a solution, turns pink due to the presence of a weak base. The indicator itself is a weak, colorless acid that forms pink anions when it dissolves in water.Full Answer >
Bromine water is used to test for unsaturated oils because it changes color in their presence. The BBC states that pure bromine water, a solution of water and bromine, has a brownish orange hue. When mixed with an unsaturated oil, the bromine water becomes colorless. Its color does not change when mixed with saturated oils.Full Answer >