Chromosomes assist in the process of cell division by distributing DNA. They act as a container to hold in the DNA molecules.Know More
Every living creature relies on cell division for its existence. Cell division is essential for the organism to grow and function. In order for cell division to occur, new cells need to receive the genetic information contained in the DNA. Because DNA molecules are too large to fit inside the cells, chromosomes ensure that the DNA makes it to the cells by holding them in and keeping them attached to proteins known as histones.
If the structure of a chromosome changes before being transferred to the new cell, malformations can occur. Similarly, if the number of chromosomes is incorrect, it can create a genetic defect. Illnesses, such as cancer, may occur as a result of a defective chromosome. Down syndrome is an example of a condition that is caused by a chromosomal error. A person with Down syndrome has an extra copy of their 21st chromosome.
Genetic information is contained in the DNA and carried by the chromosomes. This material influences the traits and characteristics inherited by the offspring. Traits, such as flower color and seed shape, in plants are determined by this genetic information. In humans, the offspring inherits two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. The combination of these sets determines characteristics like hair color, eye color, height, and gender. Information about gender is set by the X and Y chromosomes. Males have an X chromosome and a Y chromosome, while females have a pair of Y chromosomes.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Genes are individual segments of DNA and chromosomes are structures which contain many genes packed together. Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule and each DNA molecule contains several genes or individual strands.Full Answer >
In eukaryotic organisms, the majority of DNA is found within the nucleus of the cell in the form of a chain of chromosomes. Eukaryotes also have extra chromosomal DNA that is found within various cell organelles located outside of the nucleus, primarily in the mitochondria and chloroplasts.Full Answer >
The chromosome theory of inheritance is the theory that shows genetics are carried by the chromosomes in the DNA of organisms. This theory was put forth by Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri around 1902. The two men were working separately but at around the same time on the same material.Full Answer >
Chromatin is a strand of DNA wrapped around a protein, and is a building block of all chromosomes. The chromosome is the structure in which DNA is stored in cells.Full Answer >