The stronger the intermolecular forces, the more energy it takes to overcome these interactions and to cause the substance to boil. Therefore, molecules with strong bonds have high boiling points, and molecules with weak bonds have lower boiling points.Know More
The four types of intermolecular forces, listed from strongest to weakest, are ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole interactions and Van Der Waals dispersion forces, or London forces.
Ionic forces are interactions between positively and negatively charged atoms or molecules, which attract and bond to each other like magnets. Hydrogen bonding occurs when molecules like oxygen, fluorine and nitrogen, which contain highly electronegative elements, bond to hydrogen. The electronegative atoms pull the hydrogen's electrons toward themselves, creating a partial positive charge on the hydrogen atom and a partial negative charge on the electronegative atom. These partial charges contribute to the strength of intermolecular forces. Dipole-dipole interactions occur when partial charges are created within a molecule that contains electronegative atoms, and the partial charges attract other molecules.
London forces are the weakest intermolecular force. These forces are temporary and occur when electrons are not evenly distributed around the nucleus of the atom. If there are more electrons on one side, a partial charge is created on the atom itself, allowing it to attract other charged atoms or molecules.Learn more about States of Matter
Intermolecular forces are responsible for the physical properties of a substance, such as its melting or boiling point, viscosity, solubility, surface tension and evaporation. The types of intermolecular forces are ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole and induced dipole forces. Except ionic force, all other intermolecular forces occur between neutral molecules, which have a slight polarity.Full Answer >
Intermolecular forces are the attractive forces between molecules that hold them together. There are four types of intermolecular forces: hydrogen bonds and ionic, dipole and induced dipole forces.Full Answer >
Water boils when the thermal energy in the water, which is a type of kinetic energy which causes the water molecules to move around, exceeds the strength of the hydrogen bonds between the molecules, causing them to separate from the other molecules. This breaking of bonds between water molecules consumes any additional thermal energy added, so that water at boiling temperature does not increase in temperature until the phase change is complete. In normal conditions, much of the water vapor almost immediately turns to steam, which is actually composed of droplets of liquid water because it has left the source of heat.Full Answer >
The ideal gas law describes a relationship between pressure (P), volume (V), temperature and number of moles (n) in terms of the gas constant (R) for an ideal gas. The ratio of (PV) to (nT) should be equal to the gas constant as shown in the ideal gas equation PV = nRT. The ideal gas law assumes that the gas molecules are ideal and do not have any volume and that there are no forces acting on them except during collisions. It was designed to understand the effects of pressure, volume and temperature on gases while excluding the variables of real-world conditions.Full Answer >