The relationships between rhizobium bacteria and the legumes are mutualistic relationships where the legumes provide the bacteria shelter in special root nodules, and the bacteria help the legumes form important nitrogen compounds. The bacteria and the plants work together to activate special genes and create necessary proteins and other compounds.Know More
Peas, beans, clover and alfalfa are all legumes with the ability to form relationships with rhizobium bacteria. This relationship is very useful for agriculture, since legumes can be grown without the need for nitrogen fertilizers. This process often leaves enough nitrogen in the soil that other types of plants can later benefit, which removes the need for fertilizers even when rotating non-legume crops into the same spaces.
The bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into usable forms, but they can only do so in partnership with legumes. Rhizobia are the only type of bacteria to form this relationship. As the legumes grow, their roots release compounds which signal their presence to bacteria in the soil.
The bacteria, in turn, release compounds that stimulate the roots to form unusual root hairs with tubes for the bacteria to enter. These tubes are known as infection threads. It is only when the bacteria are established in the roots that nodules are formed.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen gas, which is almost inert, into solid nitrogen compounds that can then be absorbed by plants. These bacteria help fertilize the plants.Full Answer >
Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon and oxygen are the main elements that make up amino acids, the basic building blocks of proteins, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Other elements that can appear in proteins after post-translational modification are sulfur and selenium, Wikipedia adds.Full Answer >
DNA is a long molecule composed of two chains of smaller molecules called nucleotides, each which contain a region of nitrogen called the nitrogenous base, a carbon-based sugar molecule called deoxyribose and a region of phosphorus called the phosphate group. There are four types of nitrogenous bases: adenine (abbreviated as A), thymine (abbreviated as T), guanine (abbreviated as G) and cytosine (abbreviated as C).Full Answer >
The six most commonly found elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. These elements make up the bulk of organic material; however, only about 25 elements are necessary for life.Full Answer >