According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the primary role of DNA polymerases is to replicate the DNA of an organism, accurately and efficiently, during cell division. Additionally, polymerases play a vital role in proofreading the genetic code for errors and fixing those that arise.Know More
When an organism begins the process of cellular division, an enzyme called helicase pulls apart the two sides of the DNA molecule. According to Wikipedia, DNA polymerases then start to copy each strand of the original double-stranded DNA. DNA polymerases work directionally: They begin the replication process at the 3’ end of the molecule and work towards the 5’ end of the molecule. However, the newly produced strand is constructed in the opposite direction, thus yielding a complimentary strand to the original.
Wikipedia states that DNA polymerase does not replicate each DNA strand perfectly. On average, the enzyme causes an error in one out of every 1 billion base pairs. However, Nature.com contends that the rate of error is closer to one out of every 1 million base pairs.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information explains that there are many different types of DNA polymerases. Some organisms, such as the ubiquitous bacteria Escherichia coli, have five such polymerases. The organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses eight different polymerases, while human beings utilize at least 15 different polymerases.Learn More
The University of Illinois at Chicago explains that DNA must replicate itself so that during cell division, both daughter cells receive the same genetic information. DNA replication is necessary during the process by which somatic cells divide, called mitosis, as well as during meiosis, the process by which organisms produce gametes, or sex cells.Full Answer >
DNA sequencing is used to identify individual genes within the DNA of any organism. This information can be used to identify variants and mutations that cause diseases and disorders.Full Answer >
DNA Polymerases are a group of enzymes used by the body to replicate DNA molecules to make new double-stranded DNA. These enzymes assemble the necessary nucleotides, helping them pair up to create new DNA.Full Answer >
DNA polymerase I is an enzyme that plays a role in the process of DNA replication, according to the biochemical research firm Worthington Biochemical Corporation. DNA polymerase I is abundant, and its task is to fill spaces in DNA if they occur during replication, repair and recombination.Full Answer >