Perhaps the clearest analogy that can be made to describe the role of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is that of a factory assembly line. Along its surface, which Dictionary.com describes as "rough" owing to the ribosomes arrayed along its membrane, proteins are synthesized and transported for use in the cell's chemistry.Know More
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a long, convoluted structure inside the cell that is folded into a series of sacs along its course. It connects the nucleus of the cell with its plasma membrane and is often intertwined with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which has a subtly different function and is folded into a more tubular shape than the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Proteins and, in leukocytes, antibodies are assembled along the length of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and conveyed to either end for use in the cell's biology, according to About.com.
From the description About.com gives, it is easy to imagine the components of various proteins, such as insulin, being conveyed along its surface and assembled as if they were cars in a factory. Once the proteins reach the end of their journey, they're ready for use in maintaining the body's chemical balance and are released into the cytoplasm.Learn More
Walther Flemming is the founder of cytogenetics, the study of the structure and workings of cells. He served as a military physician and as a professor of anatomy in Germany.Full Answer >
When biologists describe something as "turgid," they mean it is swollen, bloated, puffed up or inflated. The word is often used to describe an organ's distension due to high fluid content. For example: "Mary drank too much water, so her stomach was achy and turgid." The word comes from the Latin "turgidus," which means "to be swollen."Full Answer >
Physical digestion is the physical process of breaking down food into smaller pieces that can easily be accessed by digestive enzymes, without making any chemical changes, whereas chemical digestion refers to the process through which the mammalian body further breaks down food substances into small, soluble chemicals that can be absorbed into the blood. The chewing of food and movement in the stomach contribute to physical digestion while natural catalysts aid chemical digestion.Full Answer >
A multicelled, or multicellular, organism is any living being comprised of more than one cell. Typically, multicellular life differentiates cells into specialized tasks, which in larger organisms can form tissues and organs. This allows multicellular organisms to have cells that are more efficient at a specific function of life.Full Answer >