The Rydberg Equation, or Rydberg Formula, predicts the light wavelength that results from the motion of an electron between an atom's different energy levels. Electron movement from one atomic orbital to another changes the energy of that electron.
Know MoreWhen electrons shift from high energy orbitals to lower states of energy, the process creates a photon of light; conversely, movement from low-energy to high-energy orbitals absorbs a photon of light. Every element has its own fingerprint on the spectrum, which means that observing the photons of light through a diffraction grating or prism reveals the specific element involved in the reaction, through a series of colored lines.
Johannes Rydberg, a Swedish scientist, attempted to discover the mathematical relationship between successive lines on the spectrum of different elements. He discovered that the wavenumbers of consecutive lines had an integral relationship. Combining this with the Bohr model of the atom, he derived the formula (1/lambda) = RZ^2(1/n1^2 - 1/n2^2), in which lambda is the wavelength (the inverse of the wavenumber), Z is the atom's atomic number, R is Rydberg's constant (1.9073731568539 * 10^7 m^(-1), and n1 and n2 are integers, with n2 larger than n1. While this formula works well with small numbers of electrons, as with hydrogen (which only features one electron), atoms that have multiple electrons cause the formula to produce errors.
Learn more about Chemical EquationsChemical equations are illustrations of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Chemical equations are expressed as A + B -> C, where A and B are the reactants, and C is the product.
Full Answer >The equation for photosynthesis states that the combination of carbon dioxide, water and light energy produces a carbohydrate (glucose) and oxygen. The chemical formula is 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2.
Full Answer >A partial pressure equation can be solved in more than one way. The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures as shown in the following equation: Ptot = P1 + P2 + P3. If the components of a pressure are given, you may calculate the partial pressures and add them to find the total pressure. These pressures can be found through the following equation: p = nRT/V.
Full Answer >The chemical equation for wine fermentation when starting from glucose is C_{6}H_{12}O_{6} = 2CO_{2} + 2CH_{3}CH_{2}OH, and when starting from maltose or sucrose, it is C_{12}H_{22}O_{11} = 4CO_{2} + 4CH_{3}CH_{2}OH. In both processes, the products are carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol. Yeast cells are used in the fermentation process to extract energy from the sugar.
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