A silent mutation occurs when a DNA message changes but the message still codes for the same amino acid and produces the correct protein. This is different from a regular DNA mutation, in which the amino acid is either changed or deleted, explains the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.Know More
Silent mutations, also called synonymous mutations, have long been thought to be a benign process because no changes occur in the amino acid sequence, resulting in the production of the normal protein. Recent studies, however, show that even though the protein remains the same, silent mutations can cause changes in the shape of mRNA, resulting in the interruption of its interaction with ribosomes. This interruption can cause a decrease in the production of the protein as well as a change in its shape, causing it to work improperly, states the FDA.
Scientists are now able to use the presence of certain silent mutations to predict the susceptibility of some patients to particular diseases and treatment outcomes. For example, one type of silent mutation places people at a higher risk for the development of cardiomyopathy, which is a condition in which the heart does not contract normally, while another silent mutation has a correlation with the survivability of children with acute myeloid leukemia.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Nucleic acids are of crucial importance to life as they are both the medium of genetic codes and the messaging based on those codes in living cells. The main varieties are deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, and ribonucleic acid, or RNA. DNA is the type found in genes in the nucleus of cells, and the word "nucleic" is derived from its importance in the nucleus. RNA consists of copies of DNA directly used to create proteins.Full Answer >
Protons are transferred between a conjugate acid-base pair during a chemical reaction. A conjugate pair is composed of an acid and a base that have common features. These common features result in an equal loss and gain of protons between the pairs during a reaction.Full Answer >
A codon is a sequence of three nitrogenous bases that code for a single amino acid. Each codon is made up of three of the four bases: adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. These are typically identified by their initials, A, T, G and C. In RNA, uracil replaces thiamine.Full Answer >
Silent acid reflux is the result when the contents of the stomach back up and stomach acid reaches the pharynx or larynx, states WebMD. The sphincter works to keep stomach contents out of the throat. In the case of silent acid reflux, the sphincter does not work properly.Full Answer >