RNA and DNA are both molecules containing the genetic information that is necessary for life. Both molecules are composed of nucleotides, which are chemical structures consisting of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base. Nucleotides are linked by alternating sugar and phosphate bonds.
Though the general structure of the nucleotides in both RNA and DNA is the same, there is a key difference. Each molecule contains a different type of sugar. The sugar in RNA is ribose, while the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. The full names of DNA and RNA, deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, are derived from the different type of sugar in each molecule.
The alternating sugar and phosphate bonds create long strands in both DNA and RNA. The molecules differ in the number of strands making up each. DNA is double-stranded, shaped like a ladder with rungs between both sides. RNA is single-stranded.
The function of DNA is the storage of genetic information. DNA is located in the nucleus and must remain there. RNA travels from the nucleus through the cell's cytoplasm to the ribosome. It carries the information from the DNA to the ribosome so that it can be decoded to make proteins.
Genetic information is coded by using the chemicals adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine in DNA. RNA uses the same chemicals as DNA to store genetic information, with the exception of thymine. RNA replaces thymine with a chemical called uracil.Learn More
The monomers of DNA and RNA are nucleotides, which are made up of a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base. In DNA, the nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. In RNA, the nitrogenous bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil.Full Answer >
Paramecia are single-cell organisms that live in ponds, rivers, lakes, streams and puddles. Some paramecia survive inside the bodies of animals or in soft, moist soil.Full Answer >
Anti-parallel DNA strands are the single strands that sit at the end of each DNA molecule. One end is called the 3 prime and the other is called the 5 prime.Full Answer >
Deoxyribonucleic acid, often called DNA, has a primary function of storing the genetic data of the cell. Without DNA, cells could not function and would not be able to replicate to ensure the survival of an organism.Full Answer >