Sponges continually pump water through the ostea into an internal system of canals and expel it from the osculum, trapping food and removing oxygen from the water. They use collar cells in these canals to flip flagella, creating the pumping action that forces the water through their structure and trapping tiny bits of food.Know More
The Ocean Research Group says sponges are filter feeders that can consume particles as small as bacteria as well as much larger ones. They consist of an outer layer of flat epithelial cells, a middle gelatinous layer with cells that are able to migrate throughout the layer, and an inner layer containing the flagellated and collar cells.
Sponges, once thought to be plants, are animals and require oxygen to live. They transfer waste, including carbon dioxide, to the water as it passes through the canals as a part of their respiration process.
Reference.com reports there are more than 4,500 known species of sponges, all marine, with the exception of one family of freshwater sponges. They prefer shallow, temperate water, where most sponges attach themselves to rocks and live the remainder of their lives. Freestanding sponges, such as the barrel sponge, grow large enough to fit a human inside.Learn more about Biology
Phylum Porifera, or the sponge, is entirely aquatic, with over 98 percent living in the ocean, and the rest living in freshwater lakes and streams, according to BioMedia Associates. The sponge serves an important purpose in filtering bacteria and other contaminants from water, and it forms a significant portion of coral reefs. Many sponges are brightly colored and come in a diverse array of shapes.Full Answer >
Squid extract oxygen from the water using gills, just as fish do. These gills are located in the squid's mantle, the soft but muscular cavity behind the squid's head.Full Answer >
Plants take in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen through photosynthesis, while animals breathe in oxygen and expel the carbon dioxide. Known as the oxygen cycle, this mirrored use of carbon dioxide and oxygen does have a few exceptions.Full Answer >
The reaction of oxygen and glucose produces energy and carbon dioxide. Carbohydrate and water are also both by-products of the reaction. Some energy released is in the form of heat which maintains human body temperature.Full Answer >