The strength of the interatomic and intermolecular bonds in a material as well as the temperature and pressure determine the state of matter that it assumes. Material states at different temperatures and pressures are represented by phase diagrams.Know More
The most common states of a material include solids, liquids and gases. Materials assume a solid state when the intermolecular and interatomic bonding energies exceed the kinetic energy of the material molecules or atoms due to thermal vibration.
Materials assume a liquid state when the intermolecular and interatomic bonding energy are comparable with the thermal kinetic energy. Stronger interaction between liquid molecules results in higher viscosity.
Materials assume a gaseous state when the intermolecular and interatomic bonding energy are much lower than the thermal kinetic energy. In many cases, the interaction between gas atoms or molecules can be completely neglected. The larger the thermal kinetic energy becomes, the more insignificant the interactions between gas atoms or molecules are.
Thermal energy is described by the temperature of the material. This energy is often proportional to some value containing the product of the Boltzmann constant and the temperature in degrees Kelvin, called the absolute temperature. Higher pressure can cause atoms and molecules to come closer together, leading materials to assume solid or liquid states at temperatures below their melting or boiling points, respectively.Learn more in Physics
White flames ordinarily have a temperature of 2,500 to 2,900 degrees Fahrenheit (1,400 to 1,600 degrees Centigrade). This can vary depending on the substance burned.Full Answer >
The viscosity of a liquid decreases as the temperature is raised, while the viscosity of a gas increases as the temperature is raised. In a liquid, the increased temperature causes the molecules to move faster, which means that they spend less time pressing against each other and holding each other down. The same heat slows the motion of gas molecules by making them bump into each other more, which makes them move more slowly overall, increasing the viscosity.Full Answer >
The addition of heat raises the temperature of a material by a certain amount. The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a unit mass or volume of material by one degree is called the specific heat of the material.Full Answer >
The temperature of a flame from a known material can be estimated based on the flame's color. However, flame color is also affected by the material being burnt and differs based on its chemical properties in addition to its temperature.Full Answer >