According to the octet rule, atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to achieve a full set of valence electrons. When their valence shells gain a full complement of valence electrons, atoms become especially stable. An element tends to take the shortest path to achieving a full valence shell, whether that means gaining or losing an electron.Know More
Atoms are comprised of a nucleus that contains the protons and neutrons with a cloud of electrons that circles the nucleus in orbitals. The outermost orbital shell of an atom is called its valence shell, and the electrons located in that shell are called the valence electrons. A completely filled shell contains eight valence electrons. During chemical reactions, extra valence electrons can be gained from another atom's valence shell, lost, or shared with another element to form chemical bonds. Valence electrons are the highest energy electrons in an atom and are the most reactive.
Elements that are lower in the periodic table, with an atomic number of 20 or lower, are more likely to follow the octet rule. The six noble gases, which are helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon, have completely filled valence shells and are the most stable elements on the periodic table.Learn more about Particle Physics
The particle theory of matter states that all matter is made up of tiny particles, specifically atoms and molecules, and that these particles have inherent characteristics. A major part of the theory is the belief that all particles in a single pure substance are the same and are different from particles of other substances.Full Answer >
Ernest Rutherford made several discoveries, the most notable ones were the discovery of the nucleus in atoms, radiation half-life and the differentiation between alpha and beta radiation. Out of all of his discoveries, the discovery of the nucleus is possible his most well known one. The majority of Rutherford's work was accomplished after he was already a Nobel Prize laureate.Full Answer >
According to Reference.com, "An atom consists of a small, dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that whirl about it in orbits, forming a cloud of charge." In a broad sense of the term, electrons are everywhere and in everything, as they are one of the elementary particles that make up an atom.Full Answer >
Orbitals may contain only two electrons each. Electrons move around in orbitals, which are areas where electrons have a high possibility of being found. Orbitals are grouped together into energy levels.Full Answer >