The three layers skin are the fat layer, the dermis and the epidermis. The topmost layer is the epidermis, and the bottom layer is the fat layer, also called the subcutis.Know More
The fatty layer serves as insulation, protection and energy storage for the body. It consists of fat cells in a matrix of fibrous tissue.
The dermis features mainly tissues called collagen, elastin and fibrillin. Nerve endings, sweat glands, hair follicles and blood vessels also live in the dermis.
The epidermis is a thin layer composed mainly of keratinocytes. It protects the body from foreign objects, such as bacteria, viruses and other substances. In the epidermis lies cells called Langerhans, which play a part in protecting the body against infection. Melanocytes also inhabit the epidermis. These cells secrete melanin, a pigment that protects the body from UV rays and gives skin its color.Learn more about Human Anatomy
The stratum lucidum reduces friction and shear forces between the surrounding layers of the epidermis. About.com explains that the stratum lucidum layer is only present in a few areas of the body that have very thick skin.Full Answer >
The sub-layer of skin called the stratum spinosum is believed to aid in flexibility, and it enables the epidermis, or outer layer of skin, to better withstand the effects of friction and abrasion. The stratum spinosum is thicker in those areas of the skin, such as the soles of the feet and palms of the hands, that experience a greater degree of abrasion from contact with external surfaces. The thickness of the sub-layer in these areas appears to support its function in providing strength and flexibility.Full Answer >
The dermis of the skin is composed of loose areolar connective tissue and dense irregular connective tissue. The dermis is structurally composed of two parts: the papillary and the reticular region.Full Answer >
Scleroderma affects the skin and connective tissue, according to the Scleroderma Foundation. It may also affect the muscles, joints and internal organs, depending upon the kind of scleroderma, its location and how extensive it is.Full Answer >