The genetic information of the bacteria used was transformed in Griffith’s experiment. Transformation involves the alteration of the genetic information of a cell through the direct uptake and expression of DNA from its surroundings.Know More
The experiment was conducted in 1928 by English medical officer and geneticist Frederick Griffith. It was one of the first experiments to demonstrate the transformative capabilities of microorganisms.
Using two strains of pneumococcus bacteria, Griffith infected two isolated test populations of mice. One of the strains featured a smooth polysaccharide coating that shielded it from the host’s immune system, enabling infection. The other strain did not have this coating. The coated bacteria were killed through heating, and their remains were mixed with the culture of the noncoated bacteria. Neither strain was able to independently kill the mice, but the mixture of the live and dead strains did kill the mice. Furthermore, the blood of the deceased mice yielded live samples of both strains. The noncoated bacteria was able to copy the genetic data of the coated dead bacteria, enabling the former to transform into the latter.
Conjugation and transduction are two means other than transformation in which outside genetic information can be integrated into a bacterial cell.Learn more about Biology
The five basic steps of the scientific method are: make observations, propose a hypothesis, design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis, analyze the data to see if it supports the hypothesis and, if necessary, propose and test a new hypothesis based on these findings. The scientific method is the basic set of actions that scientists use to make new discoveries and prove theories correct or incorrect.Full Answer >
The first idea for cloning came about in 1938 when Hans Spermann suggested an experiment where one would replace the nucleus of an egg with another cell and grow a new specimen from that. Cloning has now moved on from frogs and rabbits to sheep and dogs.Full Answer >
Louis Pasteur finally disproved spontaneous generation through an experiment where beef broth was sterilized through boiling in two flasks, one that was exposed to air and another that was protected from it. The one that was exposed to contaminants clouded, showing microbial growth, while the sealed one did not.Full Answer >
The seven steps of the scientific method are observing an occurrence or asking a question, researching the topic, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting an experiment, analyzing results, drawing a conclusion and reporting results. Scientists utilize this method to construct effective experiments that test natural cause and effect relationships.Full Answer >