Transition metals refer to the 38 elements from groups three to 12 on the periodic table. They are hard, ductile, malleable and capable of conducting heat and electricity. They often have several common oxidation states, because their valence electrons exist in more than one shell.
The five d orbitals become more filled, starting from left to right on the periodic table. The loosely bound d electrons contribute to the high malleability and electrical conductivity of the elements.
Transition elements have low ionization energies. They have a wide range of positively charged forms or oxidation states. Positive oxidation states enable these metals to create numerous different ionic and partially ionic compounds. The d orbitals separate into two energy sublevels due to the formation of complexes. This allows most of the complexes to absorb particular frequencies of light, forming characteristic colored compounds and solutions.
Three noteworthy transition elements are iron, nickel and cobalt, which are the only elements that produce a magnetic field. Generally, these metals have high melting and boiling points. Moreover, they typically form colored compounds. Another property of transition metals is that they are often paramagnetic.
The most abundant transition elements are iron and titanium. Important transition metals include silver, copper and iron. Many of these elements serve as catalysts for industrial reactions.Learn More
The unique structure of the transition metals causes them to form brightly colored compounds. This structure affects the way light is absorbed, transmitted and reflected. The oxidation state of the particular element affects the colors of the compounds it forms.Full Answer >
Transition metals such as iron, magnesium or chromium react to form varied colored compounds. Compounds of the same valence have color differences. The transition metals easily form alloys with themselves and other metals. The metals also form salts such as chromium (III) chloride, which is violet in color and dissolves in liquid ammonia to produce a yellow substance that can be separated when the ammonia evaporates.Full Answer >
Iron, titanium, vanadium, nickel, platinum and palladium are examples of transition metal catalysts. Transition metals and their compounds act as catalysts because their electronic configurations enable them to temporarily exchange electrons with reacting species.Full Answer >
Alkali metals are highly reactive, explosive metals found in Group 1 of the periodic table. This group of elements includes sodium, potassium, rubidium, lithium, cesium and francium. While they all occur in nature, they occur in their pure forms only as salts. Each alkali metal has its own list of interesting properties.Full Answer >