A tsunami is a series of waves generated by a disturbance on the ocean floor. This disturbance can be caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, explosions or meteorites. The waves have very long wavelengths, which can travel hundreds of miles across the ocean. As the waves reach the continental shelf, they can grow to be several meters in height and cause extensive destruction along the coastline.Know More
Though they may travel at speeds over 500 miles per hour, tsunamis are hard to visually detect in the deep ocean. Early warning is essential to save lives. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed stations in the Pacific Ocean that are capable of detecting the passage of a tsunami with sea bottom pressure recorders. Warnings are then sent to areas predicted to be affected by the readings.
Before a tsunami hits, the ocean may recede, creating a barren landscape to which sightseers flock. Many have been killed when the water unexpectedly crashes back to shore in a huge wall. Tsunamis do not always create a crest. Sometimes they simply flood an area, rising inland well beyond the normal shoreline. The geography of an area has a huge impact on the effects of the tsunami. Some areas of coastline may experience little damage, while nearby areas may be devastated.Learn more about Tsunamis
With wave speeds that can reach as much as 435 miles per hour, a tsunami can travel as far inland as 10 miles, depending on the slope and the shape of the shoreline that it is traveling across. Ships traveling in the deep ocean may pass over a tsunami and not even notice it because a tsunami can cause the waves to be as little as 2 feet high where the water is very deep.Full Answer >
The effects of a tsunami include loss of human and animal life, devastating property damage, severe flooding and disease. There are also environmental effects such as contamination of soil and water, a permanent change to the landscape, solid waste and disaster debris, and hazardous materials and toxic substances.Full Answer >
After the initial wave hits land, a large wall of water follows closely behind it. The water slams into the land, then immediately begins to recede, taking many objects on land with it.Full Answer >
Before a tsunami is imminent, people living in areas where tsunamis are possible should construct tsunami emergency kits and organize a family communications plan. When a tsunami watch is issued, people should tune into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's weather service, ensure the emergency kit is well stocked, locate family members and prepare to evacuate. When a tsunami warning is issued, everyone should evacuate to higher ground.Full Answer >