An animal with vertebrae made from either cartilage or bone is a vertebrate. Vertebrates can be mammals, fish, birds, reptiles or amphibians.Know More
Vertebrates all have a stiff vertebral column running down their bodies, and this column is made up of a series of discs and vertebrae to support the animal structurally and to lend it a certain amount of flexibility.
Scientists think that vertebrates first emerged during the Cambrian period, which was around 525 million years ago. The first known vertebrate is considered to be an animal known as Myllokunmingia, which had a skull and skeleton that was made up of cartilage.Learn more in Bones
The Mayo Clinic explains that bone spurs are simply an extra bone on top of the foot. According to WebMD, these spurs occur when the bone tries to repair itself by building extra bone, and they also form in response to pressure, rubbing and stress that occur over a long period of time.Full Answer >
The human backbone, also referred to as the vertebral column, protects the spinal cord. The spinal cord serves as a link between the body and the brain, therefore needs protection to prevent irreversible damage, as it is unable to repair itself.Full Answer >
Flat bones in the human body include the ribs, sternum (breastbone), scapula (shoulder blade), pelvic girdle and many of the 29 bones that make up the skull. Flat bones act as protection for essential organs or as attachment points for major muscle groups.Full Answer >
Each wrist has eight carpal bones arranged in two rows. This group of bones joins the long bones in the forearm, which are called the radius and ulna.Full Answer >