Water has a high boiling point because its molecules are bound together by hydrogen bonding, which is a very strong intermolecular force. It takes more kinetic energy, or a higher temperature, to break the hydrogen bonding between water molecules, thus allowing them to escape as steam.Know More
Boiling of a liquid involves increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules by increasing the temperature of the liquid. As the molecules gain more kinetic energy, they are able to escape the intermolecular forces that hold them together as a liquid and become gaseous molecules. The amount of kinetic energy required to break the intermolecular forces increases with the strength of the intermolecular force involved. Stronger intermolecular forces require more energy to disrupt, thus resulting in a higher boiling point for that substance.
Water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonding, which is a very strong intermolecular force. Each water molecule is polar because the oxygen has a partial negative charge, while the hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge. The partial negative charge of one water molecule exerts a strong attractive force over the partial positive charge of a different water molecule. In order to boil water, the molecules have to be supplied with a sufficient amount of kinetic energy to escape the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules. The temperature must be increased in order to increase the kinetic energy of the molecules. The presence of the hydrogen bonds thus elevates the boiling point of water.Learn more about Thermodynamics
Melting point is the temperature at which a solid melts to become a liquid. Since water is already a liquid, it does not have a point at which it liquefies. Frozen water is called ice and has a normal melting point of zero degrees Celsius, according to Purdue.Full Answer >
Water has a high heat capacity because a lot of heat energy is required to break the hydrogen bonds found in a molecule of water. Because the majority of heat energy is concentrated on breaking the hydrogen bonds, the water molecule itself heats up after the bonds are broken.Full Answer >
Energy is required to boil a liquid in order to give the molecules enough energy to overcome intermolecular attraction forces. While boiling, the highest energy liquid molecules are able to escape the liquid and enter the gas phase.Full Answer >
Lithium has a boiling point of 1,342 degrees Celsius and a freezing point of 180.5 degrees Celsius. Due to lithium's high freezing point, it exists as a solid at room temperature.Full Answer >