Water has a high boiling point because its molecules are bound together by hydrogen bonding, which is a very strong intermolecular force. It takes more kinetic energy, or a higher temperature, to break the hydrogen bonding between water molecules, thus allowing them to escape as steam.Know More
Boiling of a liquid involves increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules by increasing the temperature of the liquid. As the molecules gain more kinetic energy, they are able to escape the intermolecular forces that hold them together as a liquid and become gaseous molecules. The amount of kinetic energy required to break the intermolecular forces increases with the strength of the intermolecular force involved. Stronger intermolecular forces require more energy to disrupt, thus resulting in a higher boiling point for that substance.
Water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonding, which is a very strong intermolecular force. Each water molecule is polar because the oxygen has a partial negative charge, while the hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge. The partial negative charge of one water molecule exerts a strong attractive force over the partial positive charge of a different water molecule. In order to boil water, the molecules have to be supplied with a sufficient amount of kinetic energy to escape the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules. The temperature must be increased in order to increase the kinetic energy of the molecules. The presence of the hydrogen bonds thus elevates the boiling point of water.Learn more about Thermodynamics
Boiling can be considered as a cooling process because as a liquid reaches its critical temperature, heat escapes through rapid evaporation. Essentially, boiling happens when liquids turn into gases, forcing excess heat out of the liquid.Full Answer >
Air is a good insulator because its molecules are very far apart. This makes it difficult to transfer heat, according to Dr. Ken Mellendorf, a physics professor at Illinois Central College.Full Answer >
According to Elmhurst College, the molecules in a liquid are packed closely together and make random movements, as the molecules slip past each other. As the liquid is heated, the kinetic energy increases, which causes the motion of the molecules to increase. Eventually, the motion becomes so intense that the forces of attraction between the molecules are disrupted, and the molecules break free of the liquid, becoming a gas.Full Answer >
Hot air rises because when a substance is hot, its molecules are farther apart, which makes the hot air less dense and, therefore, lighter than cooler air. Air is generally warmer nearer the surface of the Earth because of the sun's radiating heat. When hot air rises, it starts to get cooler and eventually it sinks back down to the surface.Full Answer >