Folding is a ductile behavior in which flat layers of rock bend in response to stress. Faulting is a brittle behavior in which a rock develops one or more fractures in response to stress.
If the hinge of a fold, which refers to the point of sharpest curvature, points up, it is called an anticline. If the hinge of the fold points down, it is called a syncline. A recumbent fold is when the hinge of the fold points to the side. In regards to faulting, the deformation of the rock concentrates along the fractures. There are several types of faults: reverse, thrust, normal and strike-slip.