Top-down processing is a cognitive process in which the brain makes inferences about new or unfamiliar information based upon the context in which the information is used and past experience. It is a process by which the brain looks at the whole rather than the individual parts to derive meaning. In top-down processing, only after the overall concept is understood does the brain begin to focus on details.Know More
Though top-down processing can be useful, it does have some problems. Top-down processing can be influenced by what a person expects to observe. If a person is reading a list of colors, changing the font color to a contrasting color slows down the speed at which the person is able to read the word list. Placing unfamiliar words in a list of familiar words that are connected by a theme may automatically make a person associate the meaning of the new words with the theme of the others, even though the new words may belong in an entirely different category.
In contrast, bottom-up processing involves the piecing together of details to develop an understanding of the whole. The focus is on individual pieces of data, which are scrutinized for ways to link them together. Linking together these individual pieces of data eventually results in a total picture.Learn more about Computer Programming
The information processing cycle refers to the order of events that go into processing information, including input, processing, storage and output. Input consists of acquiring, entering and validating the data, while output consists of interactive queries and the running of reports. Some definitions include a fifth stage, which consists of deleting or archiving data that one does not plan to use.Full Answer >
The three steps of memory information processing are encoding, storage and retrieval. This information comes from the senses and takes many different forms such as images, sounds and meaning.Full Answer >
The brain, at its fastest, processes information during decision-making at about 60 bits per second or less. Since there are eight bits in a byte, that equates to around seven to eight bytes per second.Full Answer >
According to San Jose State University, statistics helps researchers make inferences about data. Instead of just using raw data to explain observations, researchers use various statistical analyses to derive predictions and trends from large data sets. Scientists and professionals use statistics in a variety of disciplines and fields, including biological sciences, political science and engineering.Full Answer >