Air-over-hydraulic brake systems operate using a combination of compressed air and hydraulic pressure, and the release of the air and hydraulic pressure engages the master cylinder. It then applies pressure to the valves, and the brake fluid is released. The brakes then exert friction on the tires, which stops them.Know More
Air-over-hydraulic brake systems contain an air-over-hydraulic power cylinder. This cylinder has both an air cylinder and a hydraulic cylinder inside, which work in tandem with each other. The air and hydraulic cylinders each contain a piston and common rod. The air cylinder's piston is a larger diameter than the hydraulic cylinder's piston. This results in greater hydraulic pressure being released during normal breaking. When the brake pedal is pressed, the valves are opened by the master cylinder, releasing the atmospheric pressure that builds up when the valves are closed. During hard braking, the master cylinder causes greater valve movement. This results in the valve releasing more air into the air-over-hydraulic power cylinder, allowing for faster braking.
Most modern vehicles have two-circuit brake systems, which are operated by the master cylinder. Each circuit controls two wheels. This increases safety because if one circuit fails, drivers can still brake as long as the other circuit remains operational.Learn more about Brakes
Gravity bleeding brakes involves attaching clear tubing to the vehicle's bleeders and manipulating the tubing to release trapped air bubbles in the braking system. The required supplies are an automotive jack, four jack stands, 1 quart of brake fluid, 5 feet of 3/16-inch tubing, an empty quart jar, a hammer, masking tape, vise grip pliers and an open-end wrench. This procedure takes about 30 minutes.Full Answer >
Drum brakes work by pressing brake shoes against the inside of a drum-shaped cylinder attached to the wheel of the vehicle. The friction produced by this contact slows the wheel, slowing down the vehicle. Drum brakes are most common on older vehicles. On newer vehicles, they are often attached to only the rear wheels, and more-efficient disc brakes slow the front wheels.Full Answer >
Electromagnetic brakes slow down or stop a moving machine by using an electromagnetic force to apply friction to its wheels. These brakes receive the electromagnetic force they require from a magnetic field comprised of a magnetic coil and a coil shell that is bolted to the machine frame.Full Answer >
Water bottle rockets work by pressurizing a plastic bottle with air and using that compressed air to force water out of the spout. The bottle works like a rocket engine, increasing the thrust provided by the pressurized water as it flows through a constricting nozzle. The forces involved can propel the rocket up to 2,000 feet in the air, although most hobbyist rockets travel shorter distances.Full Answer >