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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class_action

A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit where one of the parties is ... In a typical class action, a plaintiff sues a defendant or a number of .... Under § 1332(d)(2) the federal district courts have original jurisdiction over ..... With the individual positions varying greatly, a political consensus could not ...

www.shipmangoodwin.com/files/Publication/a2991042-13b5-4d6b-a99c-0282873eb47f/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/a9d4ee29-be18-48ad-9545-0dbb1c5cb507/20091109164126754.pdf

the sparse law governing defendant class action lawsuits and its potential ..... tion even though the individuals are not identically situated?“ ' As such ..... d. Certification Under Rule 23(b)(2). Like Rule 23(b)(1), this rule has no counterpart under ...

www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/administrative/litigation/materials/2014_corporate_counselcleseminar/b2_2_a_primer_class_certification_under_federal_rule.authcheckdam.pdf

Although a plaintiff need not identify individual class members prior to class certification, .... Rule 23(b)(2) requires not only that the defendant have engaged in a .... particular forum; and (D) the likely difficulties in managing a class action.”.

www.gibsondunn.com/publications/Documents/ChorbaEvanson-DueProcessChallenges.pdf

For example, plaintiffs may not constitutionally subject a defendant to a ... to 23(c )(2) and the discretionary notice under 23(d)(2) were intended to fulfill the .... the class predominate over any questions affecting only individual members, and.

www.law.cornell.edu/rules/frcp/rule_4

(D) state the time within which the defendant must appear and defend; ... Any person who is at least 18 years old and not a party may serve a summons and complaint. ... (ii) for a defendant subject to service under Rule 4(h), to an officer, a managing or general agent, ... (G) be sent by first-class mail or other reliable means.

www.ussc.gov/guidelines/2015-guidelines-manual/2015-chapter-5

(1) the offense of conviction is a Class A or B felony, 18 U.S.C. § 3561(a)(1); ... 2. Where the applicable guideline range is in Zone C or D of the Sentencing Table ... (1) for any offense, the defendant shall not commit another federal, state or ... by the court for any individual defendant if the defendant's presentence report or  ...

www.lw.com/thoughtLeadership/TheClassActionsGuide-US

If both plaintiffs and defendants are organised into classes, the action ... inconsistency among class actions litigated in the individual states, and provides for ... that the class could not meet the Rule 23(a)(2) (Federal Rules of Civil Procedure) ... Since the passage of the Class Action Fairness Act, 28 U.S.C. § 1332(d) (CAFA), ...

www.weil.com/~/media/files/pdfs/CAFA_Overview.pdf

individual plaintiff's claims (28 U.S.C. § 1332(d)(2), (6); see. Amount in ... defendants to allow jurisdiction where at least one plaintiff is diverse from at least one ... removed action)). A class need not be certified before a court may assert federal.

www.law.du.edu/documents/denver-university-law-review/v88-1/Shen_FinalProof_21111.pdf

Feb 12, 2011 ... most exclusively on plaintiff class actions.2 Although there have been a ... Rule 23 ought not to govern defendant class actions and proposing the adoption .... As will be discussed subsequently, the premise is that individuals in the ..... District Judge D. Brock Hornby recognized this connection in a footnote,.

www.nyulawreview.org/sites/default/files/pdf/NYULawReview-73-2-Cottreau.pdf

the right to opt out of class actions.2 In recent terms, the Supreme ... Exploring the Tension Between Collective Processes and Individual Rights in the ..... under Rule 23(d) courts have the discretionary power to allow exclusion in Rule 23(b)(1 ) ... The costs imposed on defendants, however, will not necessarily ensure the.