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Free will


Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action. It is closely linked ... The underlying questions are whether we have control over our actions, and .... Other forms ...

Virtue Ethics


Here is the horse's mouth himself, Aristotle, discussing the nature of moral virtue, ... The person who is not morally virtuous is sometimes ruled by his or her ... or doing the act one exercises, exhibits or develops a morally vicious character. .... and intermediate dispositions--through repeated activity and experience over time...

Moral Character (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)


Jan 15, 2003 ... The views of moral character held by Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics ... place to the exercise of virtue, for virtuous traits of character are stable and ... Someone may be overcome by anger, fear, lust, and other desires, and ..... inclinations under his (reason's) control and so to rule over himself … f...

Moral Reasoning (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)


Sep 15, 2003 ... The Philosophical Importance of Moral Reasoning ..... maximizing rationality to his or her own preferences, an ideal moral ... Does moral reasoning include learning from experience and changing one's mind? ... For Aristotle and many of his ancient successors, the two are closely linked, in that someone not ...

Epictetus | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Although Epictetus based his teaching on the works of the early Stoics (none of which ... The eudaimonia ('happiness') of those who attain this ideal consists of ... Someone who seeks to make progress as a Stoic (a prokoptôn) understands that ..... things over which our prohairesis (moral character) has complete control.

Charles Taylor - Westmont homepage server


exercising control over our own life, including internal fears and false con- sciousness. ... do what we want also implies being in a position to exercise control in order ... which, according to Taylor, has to do with the idea that people do not have .... weight to the securing of each person's right to realise him/herself in his/...

Rational Personal Ethic - Optimal.org


True Morality - Rational Principles for Optimal Living ... our legitimate desire for personal happiness or offer supposedly ideal, but impractical solutions. ... Furthermore, each individual really only controls his own morality - others can .... We can take most responsibility for our own lives because we have most control over it.

Experience and Education


the problems, and the possibilities of education--written after his experience with the .... history of educational theory is marked by opposition between the idea that education is .... principles will not decide the way in which the moral and intellectual preference .... the school as to give them no power of control over the latter?

Plato: The Republic 1-4 - Philosophy Pages


We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but ... view, it is vital for a society to exercise strict control over the content of everything that ... Plato believed that the ideal state comprises members of three distinct ... Finally, the appetitive soul (emotion or desire) is the portion of each...

Famous Psychologists - Sigmund Freud


Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind, especially .... to a full acknowledgement of his or her inability to satisfy the most basic desires. ... themselves and their environment and judiciously exercise control over both. ... According to Freud, people often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful ...

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Socrates and Happiness - Pursuit of Happiness


Specifically, he recommended gaining rational control over your desires and harmonizing ... Through his influence on Plato and Aristotle, a new era of philosophy was ... The idea that one could obtain happiness for oneself was considered hubris, ... As someone who trusted in the eternal value of the soul, he was unafraid to ...

Thinking Critically About Moral Issues9 - Cengage Learning


that reflect a moral reasoning process that leads to your decisions. • The choices .... in your mind, qualify him or her as a morally upright individual. For each ... If you have an opportunity, ask some people you know to describe their idea of a moral ... Over time, observation, experience, and intuition have formed the corner -.

Ancient Ethical Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)


Aug 3, 2004 ... In their moral theories, the ancient philosophers depended on several .... The second central idea is that the most important good of the soul is moral virtue. ... ( a) virtue, together with its active exercise, is identical with happiness; ..... by the same thing that the good human being aims at in his or her life.