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In molecular biology, ligation is the joining of two nucleic acid fragments through the action of ... In animals and bacteriophage, ATP is used as the energy source for the ... The concentration of DNA can affect the rate of ligation, and whether the .... Without a phosphate group at the ends the vector cannot ligate to itself, but ...


However, because atoms and molecules can form ions and carry positive or ... Primary active transport directly uses a source of chemical energy (e.g., ATP) to .... a tiny fraction of the sodium-potassium pump's effect on membrane potential. ..... itself to the protein when it's about to transport a sodium ion to the other side?


The major energy currency molecule of the cell, ATP, is evaluated in the context of creationism. ... Nutrients contain energy in low-energy covalent bonds which are not very ... The terminal phosphate group is then transferred by hydrolysis to another ... The mitochondrion itself functions to produce an electrical chemical ...


How Cells Extract Energy From Complex Molecules. Summary ... Think about that ; every cell in your body has to do this for itself. Cells can cooperate to get the oxygen to other cells, but nor cell can make ATP and donate it to another cell. ... You will notice that very little ATP is produced in this step and no oxygen is required.


We show that the ability to bind to other molecules enables proteins to act as ... binds glucose and ATP so as to catalyze a reaction between them, actin molecules bind ... as water from a protein surface without affecting the access of the ligand itself. ... In effect, a ligand binding site can be kept dry because it is energetically ...


Without mitochondria, present-day animal cells would be dependent on anaerobic ... In others they remain fixed in one position where they provide ATP directly to a site of ... Such molecules can enter the intermembrane space, but most of them ... These high-energy electrons are then transferred to the inner mitochondrial ...


Dec 9, 2012 ... true ... false. Definition. NADH is a small molecule that can freely diffuse through the inner ... ATPsynthases isolated from different sources often have different numbers of c ... Depending on the cell need for metabolic energy, pyruvate can be used to ... Which of the following is NOT required for the oxidative ...


A reaction is spontaneous if DG is negative (if the free energy of the products is less .... from ATP for transfer to another compound (e.g., to a hydroxyl group on glucose). ... When ATP production does not keep up with needs, a higher portion of a ... Some regulatory effects of AMP are mediated by the enzyme AMP- Activated ...


The reason for this is that fat in circulating blood does not cross .... Fat from the adipose is used to make ATP in most tissues when glucose in the ... green molecules are fatty acids and the blue is ... In short-term fasting, proteins from muscle and other tissue are converted into glucose by ..... itself is made from cholesterol.


Discusses how autotrophs and heterotrophs obtain energy. ... You will feel warm, but you're not going to absorb any energy. ... They may consume autotrophs or other heterotrophs or organic molecules from other organisms. ... the chemical bonds in glucose, cells release the stored energy and make the ATP they need.