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In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reaction takes place on the thylakoid membranes. ... Cyclic phosphorylation is important to create ATP and maintain NADPH in the ... It transfers light energy to a dimer of chlorophyll pigment molecules near the ... The energy, but not the e- itself, can be passed onto another molecule.


In molecular biology, ligation is the joining of two nucleic acid fragments through the action of ... In animals and bacteriophage, ATP is used as the energy source for the ... The concentration of DNA can affect the rate of ligation, and whether the .... Without a phosphate group at the ends the vector cannot ligate to itself, but ...


However, because atoms and molecules can form ions and carry positive or ... Primary active transport directly uses a source of chemical energy (e.g., ATP) to .... a tiny fraction of the sodium-potassium pump's effect on membrane potential. ..... itself to the protein when it's about to transport a sodium ion to the other side?


Discusses how autotrophs and heterotrophs obtain energy. ... You will feel warm, but you're not going to absorb any energy. ... They may consume autotrophs or other heterotrophs or organic molecules from other organisms. ... the chemical bonds in glucose, cells release the stored energy and make the ATP they need.


How Cells Extract Energy From Complex Molecules. Summary ... Think about that ; every cell in your body has to do this for itself. Cells can cooperate to get the oxygen to other cells, but nor cell can make ATP and donate it to another cell. ... You will notice that very little ATP is produced in this step and no oxygen is required.


Mar 30, 2016 ... One glucose molecule can be part of more than one glycosidic .... has more potential energy than an electron in an inner shell. True. False ... When a phosphate group from ATP is transferred onto a different molecule ...... of mutation in a protein-coding gene will actually have no effect on protein sequence?


Figure 16.3Stages of GlycolysisThe glycolytic pathway can be divided into three ... Hexokinase, then, catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to a ... It is interesting to note that other kinases taking part in glycolysis—pyruvate .... of glucose into two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, but no energy has ...


We show that the ability to bind to other molecules enables proteins to act as ... binds glucose and ATP so as to catalyze a reaction between them, actin molecules bind ... as water from a protein surface without affecting the access of the ligand itself. ... In effect, a ligand binding site can be kept dry because it is energetically ...


Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria can trap the energy in sunlight through the ... Other types of microorganisms such as nonphotosynthetic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa are ... Thus, two molecules of ATP must be expended in the process. ... As glycolysis does not use oxygen, the process is considered to be anaerobic.