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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heresy_in_Christianity

When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt ... In Western Christianity, heresy most commonly refers to those beliefs which ... The development of doctrine, the position of orthodoxy, and the relationship ..... It is linked to the movement now known as the Medieval Inquisition.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christendom

Christendom has several meanings. In a contemporary sense it may refer to the worldwide ... This semantic development happened independently in the languages of ... The reason is the increasing fragmentation of Western Christianity at that .... of regaining religious unity with the West were ended by the Fourth Crusade, ...

www.answers.com/Q/What_were_the_basic_movements_that_lay_behind_the_development_of_the_crusades_in_Western_Christendom

What were the basic movements that lay behind the development of the crusades in Western ... What was the outcome of the Western crusade of 1204? ... What movement whose major goal was the reform of christendom was called what?

www.historytoday.com/jonathan-phillips/crusades-complete-history

What persuaded people in the Christian West to want to recapture Jerusalem? ... With regards to their target, crusades were also called against the Muslims of the Iberian peninsula, ... and the cliché of landless younger sons out for adventure being laid to rest. .... Thus, the basic rationale behind the Crusades was fulfilled.

dcc.newberry.org/collections/the-crusades-motivations-administration-and-cultural-influence

Oct 10, 2016 ... What were Western Christian religious beliefs, political relationships, and ... The Crusades were a series of religious and political wars fought ... The crusading movement involved men and women from every ... The wars also resulted in the destruction of cities and towns that lay in the crusaders' wake.

www.medievalwarfare.info/crusades.htm

During the Crusades the Western Church developed new types of holy warrior. ... Crusading gave them a glimpse of the larger world that lay beyond their frontiers. ... reasoning, the Crusades were the culmination of a "peace" movement. .... The slaughter continued for three days, both Christian and Muslim accounts ...

www.history.com/topics/crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims ... though it still lagged behind other Mediterranean civilizations, such as that of the ... Four armies of Crusaders were formed from troops of different Western ... of the region and approached Jerusalem, though he refused to lay siege to the city.

www.usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/crusades_timeline.htm

The crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of ... The standard for a Christian “just war” as developed by Augustine (c. ... c.950- 1300 Period of steady demographic and economic growth in Western Europe . ... in which half the land always lay fallow, to a three-field system of crop rotation. Closer ...

www.britannica.com/event/Reformation

Reformation: the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century. Its greatest leaders undoubtedly were Martin Luther and John Calvin. ... the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. ... Here lay the key to Luther's concerns for the ethical and theological reform of ...