In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling and
if the group is ... It is also likely that fish benefit from shoal membership through
increased hydrodynamic effi...
Fish in schools benefit from increased vigilance and. as a consequence of ...
There are however a number of constraints on the evolution of schooling and
Sep 16, 2011 ... The second advantage of schooling is to boost the group's foraging success,
which has been proven in trials to grow considerably in ...
Fish travel in schools because they are programmed by evolution to know that ...
The advantages that a school lends to an individual seem logical, but more ...
social behaviors such as schooling in fishes provide a prom- ising avenue to ....
more evolutionary advantages under some circumstances than others (e.g. ...
hance one of the models for fish schooling with the abil- ity to sense a predator's
approach. ... behaviors of the predator with advantage of schooling. Introduction.
CHONDRICHTHYES, the jawed fish with cartilaginous skeletons. ..... Evolution
has a keen ability in finding weaknesses in any system, and it has done so with ...
only by accident), a fish may gain a swimming advantage by being in a school.
CanadaV6T1ZA. Keywords animal groups, disease transmission, fish schools,
information transfer, ... encounters has important consequences for the evolution
of reciprocal altruism and ..... during a shoal encounter there may be advantages.
and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1003, USA
... have been extensively studied, with the primary benefits being protection from
... simulation of the movement of fish shoals and schools (Aoki, 1982; Huth and ...
natural conditions. The fact that a great many species of ﬁsh congregate in
schools suggests that the behavior offers a considerable evolutionary advantage.