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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back-to-Africa_movement

The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement or Black Zionism, .... of struggling to cope with urban life set the scene for the back- to-Africa movement of the 1920s, established by Marcus Garvey although there were ...

www.inmotionaame.org/migrations/topic.cfm?migration=4&topic=8

The UNIA became the largest mass movement in African-American history, and attracted followers throughout the Caribbean, Africa, South America, and Great ...

www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/marcus-garvey-mainstay-back-africa-movement

... who was a proponent of the "Back to Africa" movement in the United States. ... In 1912, he went to England, where he became interested in African history and ...

en.metapedia.org/wiki/Back-to-Africa_movement

Apr 12, 2012 ... The idea of a Back to Africa Movement, however, started long before 1848. The American Colonization Society, founded in 1816 by Charles ...

www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=4

May 3, 2012 ... The ACS founded the Republic of Liberia in 1847, with its flag and constitution ... Clearly, the Back-to-Africa movement was motivated by the ...

news.stanford.edu/news/2006/march1/colonize-030106.html

Mar 1, 2006 ... The so-called "back to Africa" movements, which sent American blacks, ... often have been considered as a kind of sidebar to American history.

www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/who-led-the-1st-back-to-africa-effort

... black initiated 'back to Africa' effort in U.S. history,” according to the historian ... charged with mounting a coordinated, black-directed emigration movement.

www.readex.com/blog/back-africa-movement-american-colonization-society-and-know-somethings

Jul 31, 2014 ... Founded in 1816, the American Colonization Society was a coalition ... The Back- to-Africa Movement, American Colonization Society, and the ...

www.bbc.com/history/historic_figures/garvey_marcus.shtml

... a Jamaican-born black nationalist who created a 'Back to Africa' movement in the ... To facilitate the return to Africa that he advocated, in 1919 Garvey founded  ...

www.jstor.org/stable/40034942

Journey of Hope: The Back-to-Africa Movement in Arkansas in the. Late 1800s. ... Liberia, formerly a colony established in 1822 by white philanthropists and.