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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquatic_respiration

Aquatic respiration is the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from water. Contents. [hide]. 1 Respiratory systems. 1.1 Fish; 1.2 Molluscs; 1.3 Arthropods; 1.4 Aquatic reptiles; 1.5 Amphibians; 1.6 Aquatic birds ... Bony fish use countercurrent flow to maximize the intake of oxygen that can diffuse through the gill.

asknature.org/strategy/air-flow-patterns-facilitate-efficient-gas-exchange

Jun 9, 2016 ... A breath of oxygen-rich inhaled air remains in the respiratory system for ... How do birds control the air so that it flows through their lungs when ...

www.livescience.com/55455-how-high-can-birds-fly.html

Jul 19, 2016 ... What allows high-flying birds to cruise at exceptional altitudes? ... The geese also hyperventilate to increase their oxygen intake while flying.

people.eku.edu/ritchisong/birdmetabolism.html

The birds get their name from the unique circumstances surrounding their discovery by ... how much oxygen they consumed - to determine their basal metabolic rates. ... Lower altitudes also tend to be warmer, so lower-altitude birds would not need as ... The compensation and increased-intake hypotheses predict that basal ...

jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/154/1/397.full.pdf

that an increase in the amount of oxygen extracted from the inspired air serves as a ... An increased oxygen extraction by the lung will result in a lowering of the ventilatory ... A more direct way of estimating the gas exchange efficiency in birds is by ..... by increasing their respiratory frequency and oxygen consumption and by.

www.coastal.edu/effect/audit/academic/faccomposer/1347218862_BIOL%20343%20%20Assigned%20paper%20Maina%202000%20Bat%20vs%20Bird.pdf

Key words: bird, bat, lung, flight, oxygen consumption, blood, hypoxia, haematocrit. ... turbulent air or when ascending, a bird can increase its V . O∑ for.

www.quora.com/How-does-an-unhatched-chick-get-oxygen

It's predominately diffusion across the eggshell. ...up to the time when internal pipping takes ... Is that their first intake of oxygen? ... In fact there's ample gas diffusion across the eggshell during most of the chick's development; the ... Birds at high altitudes have larger total pore size, adapting to the reduced O2 pressure.

www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/raven6b/graphics/raven06b/other/raven06_53.pdf

diffusion rate increases when surface area or concentration gradient ... In birds, air flows through the lung ... the lungs and unloads its oxygen in the tissue capillaries. ..... When blood and water flow in the same direction (b), oxygen can.

education.ti.com/~/media/01F2B2DE3CAE4170B64169A4BD809813

Birds and mammals, the only classes of endotherms, must eat more food in colder ... more when it's warmer because of the increase in their metabolisms. ... Why does a bird's oxygen consumption decrease as the temperature increases?

en.engormix.com/poultry-industry/forums/forum-birds-need-oxygenated-t29407

Sep 11, 2012 ... Forum: Do birds need oxygenated water? ... Oxygenated water gives better results in birds under heat stress by increasing oxygen, feed intake, weight ... to improve feed efficiency in the birds by improving body metabolism, ...