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The earliest camera, the camera obscura, was described by the Arabic scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) in his Book of Optics (1015–1021).

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nic%C3%A9phore_Ni%C3%A9pce

Nicéphore Niépce was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography ... In 1826 or 1827, he used a primitive camera to produce the oldest surviving photograph of a real-world scene. Among Niépce's other inventions ...

www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/firstphotograph/niepce

Born in 1765 in Chalon-sur-Saône, France, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce ... he began working with his brother, Claude, on various experiments and inventions.

www.britannica.com/biography/Nicephore-Niepce

Nicéphore Niépce, in full Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (born March 7, 1765, ... attempts at photography, which he called heliography (sundrawing), with a camera.

www.photo-museum.org/niepce-invention-photography

For his first experiments, Nicéphore Niépce positioned at the back of a camera obscura sheets of papers coated with silver salts, known to blacken with daylight.

iphf.org/inductees/joseph-nicephore-niepce

... the camera image had eluded them until the success of Joseph Nicephore Niepce ... Niepce and his brother, Claude, two years his senior, were inventors with ...

blog.scienceandmediamuseum.org.uk/a-z-of-photography-joseph-nicephore-niepce-first-photograph

Nov 25, 2013 ... Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was one of the most important figures in the ... When exposed to light in a camera obscura, the bitumen became hard ...

www.biography.com/people/nic%C3%A9phore-ni%C3%A9pce-41069

Apr 1, 2014 ... Biography.com presents French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, who made the first permanent photographic image.

www.madehow.com/inventorbios/69/Joseph-Nic-phore-Niepce.html

Biography of Joseph Nicéphore Niepce. ... In August, 1807, the brothers invented an internal combustion engine, the pyréolophore, which ran on powdered fuel. ... Although by the late seventeenth century the camera obscura projected ...

cool.conservation-us.org/byorg/abbey/an/an26/an26-3/an26-307.html

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce ... of the then-popular optical instrument, the camera obscura, would eventually lead him to the invention of the new medium. In 1824 ...