The Openness Index is an economic metric calculated as the ratio of country's
total trade, the sum of exports plus imports, to the country's gross domestic
Trade (% of GDP). World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National
Accounts data files. License: Open. LineBarMap. Share Details. 1960 1970 1980
Openness to trade: exports plus imports as a share of GDP, ranked against ....
This indicator enables BIS to assess the UK's openness to trade over time and.
Trade Openness Raises Economic Growth. "More open countries...have
experienced faster productivity growth throughout the decades 1960 to 1990.".
This paper demonstrates that trade liberalization does not have a simple and
straightforward relationship with growth using a large number of openness ...
This ratio is often called the trade openness ratio, although the term "openness"
may be somewhat misleading, since a low ratio does not necessarily imply high ...
Studies of the impact of trade openness on growth are based either on cross-
country ... Keywords: trade openness, growth, matching estimators, synthetic
tive relationship between trade openness and growth on average, but many of
them are ... 3.2 From intuitive arguments to trade models with endogenous
Keywords: Export diversification, growth volatility, trade openness ... total effect of
trade openness on growth volatility changes from negative to positive?
While trade openness promoted convergence in the 1960s and 1970s, we find
that since 1980 the benefits of trade accrued mostly to the richer economies, with