The achievement motivation theory of John Atkinson and David McClelland is one of the most highly cited theories of motivation in contemporary psychology. This theory was proposed as the result of their research that focused on motivators for cognitive processes, like the expected or perceived value of the results of an action. The achievement motivation theory was published in 1953.Know More
The achievement motivation theory supports the idea that actions are driven by the motivation to meet or exceed a certain standard of excellence perceived by the individual or society as a whole, when considered from a macro perspective. The need to achieve or meet a certain standard of excellence is thought to have derived from the first years of a child's life as the result of the way parents expect or reward independent action in their children. Thus, achievement motivation as a personality characteristic is not necessarily the same in each person.
For children who were greatly rewarded for independence, achievement motivation factors more highly in their cognitive processes, while children who were neglected do not have a history of feeling pride in meeting a certain standard of excellence. Atkinson and McClelland believed that when children are properly motivated, the emotional arousal that occurs within the unconscious becomes stronger when a child is challenged with the possibly of success.Learn more about Psychology
According to the American Psychological Association, animal experimentation provides a highly controlled living population on which to test theories about group and individual psychology, behavioral conditioning and pharmaceuticals. Scientific testing requires repeated testing and observation and animal research is considered the most effective and efficient means of obtaining data.Full Answer >
Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation asserts that humans are motivated by a hierarchy of needs: They act to fulfill basic survival needs before addressing more advanced needs or wants. This hierarchy is shaped like a pyramid, with the lower levels occupied by physical, physiological needs such as food, water and shelter. Self-actualization is at the peak of the pyramid of needs.Full Answer >
Negative reinforcement is a concept in psychology's theory of operant conditioning that suggests a behavior is strengthened when a negative outcome is stopped, removed, avoided or prevented. Negative reinforcement is an effective method of strengthening a desired behavior. Unlike punishment, negative reinforcement attempts to increase a specific behavior.Full Answer >
The Alfred Adler theory of psychoanalysis, often referred to as individual psychology, is a theory that emphasizes the social and community aspects of a person's life as being just as important as his internal realm. Adler's psychological theory is focused on family dynamics, social interests and the welfare of others.Full Answer >