Catastrophism and uniformitarianism are two schools of thought on the history of evolution, though uniformitarianism is the only view that has sound scientific evidence to support it. Catastrophism is the idea that quick, large-scale, catastrophic events created the universe, while uniformitarianism is the idea that the universe was created slowly through natural laws.Know More
Catastrophism was first theorized by Buffon and Joseph Fourier. Both men believed that the Earth was first a hot ball of molten rock that cooled throughout time. These men believed that as the planet cooled, there were volcanic eruptions and other upheavals.
Geologist Charles Lyell challenged the catastrophism theory in 1830 when he theorized that there had been gradual changes over time, which he theorized based on the ideas by James Hutton, a Scottish farmer. Hutton and Lyell believed in uniformitarianism, which suggested slow changes to the Earth, such as rain leading to erosion that would then in turn lead to mountains.
Lyell and Hutton also believed that the processes that alter the Earth are the same throughout time and do not change. This theory of uniformitarianism helped Darwin to discover and interpret the history of the Canary Islands. Darwin applied the uniformitarianism theories to the volcanic rock on the island. The geology studies on plate tectonics have also provided evidence for uniformitarianism.Learn more about Philosophy
Research philosophy is the development of logical reasoning that incorporates contemporary ideas with previously established methods of thought through structural phases. The schools of positivism and post-positivism are relevant to modern research philosophy, the former based upon techniques of objective observation while the latter reconsiders world views through metaphysical interpretation.Full Answer >
Etheric projection is the separation of one's energy from one's physical body to a separate location using consciousness of thought. Aether means air. Astral means heavens. Unlike astral projection which is at a lower energy level, but can transcend time and space, etheric projection projects someone into the physical realm.Full Answer >
Examples of uniformitarianism include magma cooling and crystallizing, ocean basins filling up, rivers flooding and landmasses experiencing erosion. These processes are things that people can observe in laboratory analogues or in nature.Full Answer >
In 2013, the Auburn Tigers football team lost to just two schools. The team lost its first game of the year to the LSU Tigers. The school didn't lose another game until the FBS National Championship game, when it was defeated by Florida State.Full Answer >