Although the debate continues regarding which has the greater effect on human behavior, it is generally accepted that the contributing factors of both nature (innate traits) and nurture (acquired traits) account for the wide variety of personalities, career paths and emotional characteristics among individuals in a society. The mid-20th century saw a shift away from the role played by genetics, or the "nature" factor, in personality development as researchers began to lean more towards the role played by an individual's interaction with their environment, or the "nurture" factor. By the latter part of the 20th century, the more influential focus was no longer centered around behavior developing independently of environment and viewed instead as an interactive process involving inherited traits, upbringing, peer experiences, random environmental events, media and socioeconomic status.Know More
Research appears to show that a trait such as an individual's IQ level, commonly assumed to be an inherited trait, can be subject to alteration by the influence of family environmental factors. Culture is also a factor in the development of behavioral traits because of its generation-to-generation transmission of accepted social norms and parameters.
The 20th-century developmental psychologist, Erik Erikson, proposed that individuals develop their personalities, learning abilities and social skills by progressing through a series of eight interactive stages beginning in early childhood and ending in the years between 50 and 70. At each stage, the developing individual encounters various types of environmental crises, and by successfully overcoming each specific crisis, moves on the next stage in the developmental sequence.Learn more in Psychology
Negative reinforcement is a concept in psychology's theory of operant conditioning that suggests a behavior is strengthened when a negative outcome is stopped, removed, avoided or prevented. Negative reinforcement is an effective method of strengthening a desired behavior. Unlike punishment, negative reinforcement attempts to increase a specific behavior.Full Answer >
Demology, or the study of human behavior, has isolated three key types: aggressive behavior, passive behavior and assertive behavior. Each individual's proclivity for any one of these behaviors depends largely upon their personal attitudes, that is, as to the acceptability or desirability of that behavior. These attitudes, in turn, are often closely related to their social or cultural context.Full Answer >
There are several methods used in studying human behavior, such as observation, experiments, correlation studies, surveys, case studies and testing. Human behaviors manifest in many ways and are determined by culture, emotions, attitudes, values, ethics, coercion, persuasion and genetics. Upon completion of study, conclusions are determined. The study of human behavior enables psychologists and other social scientists to suggest explanations for human behavior.Full Answer >
Primary deviance is a behavior in which the participant does not react negatively to perceived misbehavior, while secondary deviance occurs after a person's negative reactions to being labeled a deviant by society, according to SparkNotes. Sociologist Edwin Lemert first proposed the theory of primary and secondary deviance in 1951 as part of his labeling theory.Full Answer >