Dualistic thinking, according to William Perry's model of intellectual development, is the intellectual ability to understand good and evil but not the nuances inbetween. He believed it was the base level of intellectual development that most college freshmen possessed.Know More
In dualistic thinking, students rely on authority figures for direction on what is right or wrong. They prefer to memorize and repeat as opposed to analyze and examine, and they are uncomfortable with active and cooperative learning. Facts and figures are comfortable at this level of development; abstract concepts are not.
Perry identified eight levels of intellectual development beyond this one and developed a system, published in 1970, for helping college students grow intellectually well beyond that first level. This framework is an integral part of college teaching today.Learn more about Philosophy
Self-reliance is defined as relying on oneself or one's own efforts and abilities rather than those exerted or supplied by other people. Some synonyms of self-reliance include independence, self-dependence and self-support. Antonyms of self-reliance include dependence and reliance.Full Answer >
Universal themes in literature are common ideas that appear in plays, poems and stories – even though they were written decades or even centuries apart. Plays written thousands of years ago by the Greek playwrights Aeschylus and Sophocles have themes that are virtually identical to themes that appear in literature from modern times, and just about every literary work includes some of these timeless ideas.Full Answer >
Proponents of grade-skipping often cite its beneficial effects on intellectual development, as stated by the organization Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents. However, many who skip grades feel themselves socially unprepared to deal with older peer groups,Full Answer >
Personal barriers are obstructions put in place by individuals that negatively affect their achievement in specific areas or their lives in general. For example, some people have personal barriers that hamper their ability to communicate. Such barriers include poor listening skills, limited vocabulary, misinterpretations based on prior experiences, inattention to feedback and narrow thinking.Full Answer >