Dualistic thinking, according to William Perry's model of intellectual development, is the intellectual ability to understand good and evil but not the nuances inbetween. He believed it was the base level of intellectual development that most college freshmen possessed.Know More
In dualistic thinking, students rely on authority figures for direction on what is right or wrong. They prefer to memorize and repeat as opposed to analyze and examine, and they are uncomfortable with active and cooperative learning. Facts and figures are comfortable at this level of development; abstract concepts are not.
Perry identified eight levels of intellectual development beyond this one and developed a system, published in 1970, for helping college students grow intellectually well beyond that first level. This framework is an integral part of college teaching today.Learn More
The term "holistic thinking" refers to a big picture mentality in which a person recognizes the interconnectedness of various elements that form larger systems, patterns and objects. Thinking holistically is the opposite of analyzing something, which involves breaking down a larger system into its details.Full Answer >
Examples of abstract thinking include solving a math problem that only involves numerals and symbols and using a metaphor to refer to an angry person as a "raging bull." Abstract thinking is thinking beyond concrete objects and simple ideas.Full Answer >
The holistic model of health treats the whole person, focusing on the mind, body, emotions and spirit. According to this model of health, a person can achieve optimal health by having the proper balance in life.Full Answer >
Universal themes in literature are common ideas that appear in plays, poems and stories – even though they were written decades or even centuries apart. Plays written thousands of years ago by the Greek playwrights Aeschylus and Sophocles have themes that are virtually identical to themes that appear in literature from modern times, and just about every literary work includes some of these timeless ideas.Full Answer >