An example of a dicto simpliciter would be that all scientists are closed-minded and that if something does not fit into a scientist's existing scientific laws, they will not consider it a possibility. This is a dicto simpliciter because it states that all scientists are one specific way when, in reality, this is not true.Know More
This statement takes a specific point about some scientists and makes it about all scientists. However, there are many scientists who are interested in looking for new ideas and explanations in the world. There are many scientists who do research in odd areas and on odd topics such as crop circles, the Bermuda Triangle, ghosts and the field of cryptozoology. Other examples of dicto simpliciter would be a statement that people of faith are close-minded or that people who are atheists are close-minded. Both of these examples take a group of people and generalize their beliefs, attitudes and behaviors.
Dicto simpliciter is a sweeping generalization statement that results in unfair stereotyping. While a dicto simpliciter statement may be true in some instances, it is not true in all instances. Therefore, drawing a conclusion using the dicto simpliciter statement will lead to invalid conclusions in many instances.Learn more about Logic & Reasoning
One of the most common examples of illogical reasoning is the straw man argument, which often entails either isolating a particular part of an argument before then presenting it as an entirely individual or separate position, or using a very early form of a theory to support a case while ignoring the fully developed theory itself (attacking Darwinism using only Darwin's work as a source for example, ignores all the progress made since, so is not valid). Finding a source that offers an extreme view or unrealistic account of a position, then treating it as fact, is also a straw man argumentFull Answer >
One example of false cause and effect is using the scientific observation that increased temperature correlates with increased pressure to make the assumption that temperature causes pressure. Another example is observing that the speed of a windmill is faster when the wind is faster and assuming that the windmill is the cause of the faster wind.Full Answer >
An example of a faulty causality, which is also known as a post-hoc fallacy, is arguing that the cause of something is that which preceded it, and which does not take into account any other possible causes. An argument based on a faulty causality also ignores the possibility of coincidence. An obvious example of a post-hoc fallacy would be to argue that because a rooster can be heard crowing before the sun rises, the rooster's crowing is therefore the cause of the sunrise.Full Answer >
An example of a logical appeal is encouraging someone to quit smoking because of the noted health risks associated with smoking tobacco. Essentially, a logical appeal is used to convince someone a generally accepted truth is valid. Logical appeals are harder to dispute than other kinds of appeals, such as emotional appeals and ethical appeals, because they are a result of facts rather than feelings or opinions.Full Answer >