The origins of poverty date back to the 16th century, with the emergence of the New World, increased trade and the arrival of modern economics. Poverty emerged simultaneously with wealth. Gaps in income developed within and among nations, through combinations of geographical location, politics and access to resources and training.
Poverty existed in the 1770s, as evidenced in the book "The Wealth of Nations," written by Adam Smith in 1776. Smith noted income inequalities among citizens in the United States. However, economic prosperity differed among nations in addition to citizens of the U.S. Some nations advanced technologically and acquired wealth quickly, while others struggled to provide citizens with basic needs and resources.
Several theories exist for the difference in economic growth. Some experts argue poverty stems from geological conditions, like infertile soil, prevalence of disease and inhospitable growing conditions. Others argue that poverty derives from cultural practices and differences. Differences in religions, such as Catholics and Protestants, or Christians and Muslims, create unequal economic opportunities. Government and economic policies contribute to poverty too. Some governments historically extended more opportunities to citizens of certain races, ethnic identities and religions, leading to perpetual poverty and wealth. In 17th century America, for instance, aristocrats and conquistadors suppressed Native Americans to roles as indentured servants. Leaders restricted access to resources, such as education and good living conditions, which kept Native Americans in poverty.Learn More
The basic concepts of sociology revolve around the patterns of human behavior that sociology looks to study: society and culture, ways in which individuals and groups interact and the factors which influence an individual's role in society. The paradigms of sociology, including functionalist, conflict, symbolic interactionist, exchange and ethno-methodology will shape the way these concepts are applied.Full Answer >
The Nobel Peace Prize is an international prize awarded to extraordinary people who have made efforts to bring peaceful change to communities throughout the world, according to the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The actual prize awarded is a medallion picturing Alfred Nobel, who laid out the guidelines for awarding the prize.Full Answer >
The reflexive property of equality in math states that any number is equivalent to itself. The reflexive property is often indicated as a = a.Full Answer >
Social reform is a movement that seeks to change the social and political views of marginalized groups. Social reform movements involve the marginalized group and the activists in an effort to change political policy while bringing public awareness to the issue through protests, amended legislature and the media.Full Answer >