As described in his book "The Interpretation of Dreams," Sigmund Freud thought all dreams were unconscious expressions of wish fulfillment. According to the book, because the unconscious contained ideas and images that were often disturbing, it would censor, or filter, the information before the conscious became aware of it.
As Freud explains in "The Interpretation of Dreams," to understand dreams, they must be decoded, or interpreted. The outward content of a dream also has a latent meaning. Four principles help discover this. Condensation fuses various psychic elements together. Displacement refers to the lack of focus in dreams, and how one symbol can substitute for another, such as a king for someone's father. Representation changes abstract thoughts into images, and free association helps in the interpretation of the images back into understandable form. Finally, secondary revision creates organization in a dream by supplying narrative coherence.
First published in 1900, "The Interpretation of Dreams" remained unknown for many years. However, once Freud became more well-known, the book became popular as well. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, though Freud's theories are controversial, they remain influential due to the power of his vision and intellectual legacy. He greatly influenced psychology through his development of psychoanalysis, of which dream interpretation was a part.Learn More
The main difference between Freud and Erikson is their unique visions of what drives an individual's development. While Freud's theory is centered around basic needs and biological forces, Erikson emphasizes the importance of social and environmental factors.Full Answer >
Dr. Sigmund Freud developed the psychoanalytic theory that states that there are three levels of consciousness. These three levels are known as the unconscious, pre-conscious and conscious.Full Answer >
In psychoanalytic theory, the three levels of consciousness as outlined by Sigmund Freud are the conscious, preconscious and unconscious minds. Freud likened this theory to an iceberg with a visible tip, the conscious mind; an obscured but visible middle, the preconscious; and a bulk hidden beneath the water, the unconscious.Full Answer >
A 2013 study in the journal Brain suggests that dreams are generated by the brainstem, which also regulates sleep. There is very little definitive science on how dreams occur in the brain.Full Answer >