Transcendentalism was an American movement in literature, philosophy and politics that emerged in the 1820s and 1830s. The movement first developed among New England Congregationalists, who rejected the notions of predestination and the Trinity of God. Transcendentalism was heavily influenced by the skepticism of Scottish philosopher David Hume as well as English and German Romanticism. The movement emphasized independence, self-reliance and an individual connection to nature and the universe.Know More
Transcendentalists were influenced in particular by David Hume's notion that no proof of religion or God could be empirically verified. Ralph Waldo Emerson, the leading figure in the Transcendentalist movement, was deeply influenced by Hume's "Dialogues on Natural Religion" while studying at Harvard. Another significant text for the movement was the 1825 English translation of F. D. E. Schleiermacher's "Critical Essay Upon the Gospel of St. Luke," which proposed the notion that the Bible was a creation of human culture and history, rather than a divine document. Johann Gottfried van Herder's "Spirit of Hebrew Poetry," first published in German in 1782 but not translated into English until 1833, also complicated the distinction between human-produced poetry and the supposedly divine words of religious texts.
While van Herder's work called religious authority into question, it also asserted that equally relevant texts could still be produced. Emerson's 1836 essay "Nature," widely considered the catalyzing text of Transcendentalism, echoed many of van Herder's sentiments.Learn more about Social Sciences
The origins of poverty date back to the 16th century, with the emergence of the New World, increased trade and the arrival of modern economics. Poverty emerged simultaneously with wealth. Gaps in income developed within and among nations, through combinations of geographical location, politics and access to resources and training.Full Answer >
Racism in the United States has been around since the 1400s, beginning when European settlers began colonizing America. Europeans, in their quest to "civilize" people, began taking slaves and treating people who looked different from them as inferior.Full Answer >
The oldest mummified male body, which is believed to be 5,300 years old, showed evidence of an ear piercing. Throughout history, men have adorned their ears with jewels as a sign of wealth and prominence in society, or in more recent times, as a sign of rebellion.Full Answer >
There is no specific date for when the global food crisis started, although historians recognize the genesis of "food regimes" dating back to the 16th century, particularly during the colonial era. During this time, a mercantile food system was created, whereby basic agricultural products, such as grains, milk and meat, were produced in Europe while the colonies were forced through restrictive tariffs to produce special goods for the mother countries.Full Answer >