Nationalism is an ideology that fosters deep attachment to one's nation, whereas sectionalism is allegiance to one's particular section of the country. The distinction between nationalism and sectionalism is most significant in describing the political climate of the antebellum era of the United States, when sectional conflict between the north and south overwhelmed nationalist feelings and led the country to civil war.Know More
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy explains that nationalism is a spirit of intense affinity for one's nation, which is a ethnic and cultural unit. Nationalism emphasizes the value of the traditions, practices, customs, institutions, language and history of the nation, often romanticizing these elements and downplaying imperfections. In the context of history, nationalism is often used to characterize the zeal that provoked the nations of Europe to engage in the two world wars.
Sectionalism of the degree seen in Civil War era America is rare among most nation-states because the nation is typically a single cultural entity. Thus, smaller political units, like cities, do not have enough cultural independence to inspire an allegiance stronger than one's loyalty to the nation. Because the United States was a union of autonomous states with their own identity, the American people prior to the civil war did not have a strong national identity and tended to place allegiance to their own state above allegiance to the country.Learn more in Philosophy
Legalism emphasizes the proscribing of laws in order to ensure public order, whereas Confucianism is more concerned with instilling morality. Both philosophies are very concerned with how to effectively govern a state, but they take very different approaches. Legalism favors a complex system of rewards and punishments to control human behavior, while Confucianism places importance on virtuous rulers who teach the people by example.Full Answer >
An idealist focuses on things as they should be, whereas a realist focuses on things as they are. While an idealist is not satisfied until he sees reality achieve its optimal state, a realist is content with the most approximate results. These two philosophies are informed by distinct metaphysics that originated in ancient Greece.Full Answer >
Developed by French philosopher Auguste Comte, the theory of positivism asserts that all justifiable claims may be verified by scientific proofs involving the physical senses. This method of thought contrasts with interpretivism's emphasis on the metaphysical elements of social interaction through which people may make adjustments around one another.Full Answer >
The difference between epistemology and ontology in part is the subject that is being studied by each. In ontology, the study of being or existence and questions of what kinds of entities exist are studied. In epistemology, the study of knowing and how we come to know and questions about what knowledge is and how knowledge is possible are studied.Full Answer >