According to Professor Paul Brians of Washington State University, realism in literature was a movement that, in reaction to Romanticism, focused on the real world and familiar kinds of characters as opposed to the fantastical or supernatural. Naturalism was a later extension of realism marked by a pessimistic attitude towards humanity and an attempt to apply the scientific method to the writing of fiction.Know More
Professor Brians notes that while many identified the French novelist Balzac as the progenitor of literary realism, it was Flaubert's "Madame Bovary" that was most important in cementing realism as the dominant mode of the novel. Flaubert wrote "Madame Bovary" in a realistic literary style and within a realistic world, but also wrote the lead character Emma as someone Romanticism failed and deluded.
Émile Zola was the main practitioner of naturalism and the inventor of the term. Zola attempted to approximate the scientific method when writing his novels, emphasizing the role the environment and background of his characters played in their behaviors and fates. Instead of the triumphant individual of Romanticism, readers found in Zola characters shaped by their history. One of Zola's chief emphases, and one of naturalism's, was on humanity en masse, on group behavior and dynamics. An extreme, pervasive pessimism typically colored the depictions of humanity and societies in literary naturalism.Learn more about Philosophy
Morality is understanding the distinction between right and wrong and living according to that understanding, and ethics is the philosophy of how that morality guides individual and group behavior. The two are closely related, with morality being the foundation of ethics.Full Answer >
Legalism emphasizes the proscribing of laws in order to ensure public order, whereas Confucianism is more concerned with instilling morality. Both philosophies are very concerned with how to effectively govern a state, but they take very different approaches. Legalism favors a complex system of rewards and punishments to control human behavior, while Confucianism places importance on virtuous rulers who teach the people by example.Full Answer >
A mission describes a group or individual’s intentions or what they strive to accomplish, while a vision describes larger goals that are anticipated to come into fruition from their efforts. These two words are commonly used together in businesses. They are used in the realization and implementation of actions needed to reach a goal.Full Answer >
An idealist focuses on things as they should be, whereas a realist focuses on things as they are. While an idealist is not satisfied until he sees reality achieve its optimal state, a realist is content with the most approximate results. These two philosophies are informed by distinct metaphysics that originated in ancient Greece.Full Answer >