Primary deviance is a behavior in which the participant does not react negatively to perceived misbehavior, while secondary deviance occurs after a person's negative reactions to being labeled a deviant by society, according to SparkNotes. Sociologist Edwin Lemert first proposed the theory of primary and secondary deviance in 1951 as part of his labeling theory.Know More
Primary deviance usually occurs within a person's own peer group that engages in the same behavior. For instance, a teenager who smokes cigarettes with other teens doesn't perceive any bad behavior because everyone else in the peer group is smoking.
Secondary deviance then occurs when this same teenager moves to a different school and smokes in front of a peer group that shuns smoking. The teen is labeled an outcast and begins to smoke more because people told him or her that smoking was not acceptable. This time, the person knows the behavior is deviant and continues to engage in misbehavior anyway.
In Lemert's 1951 thesis, he demonstrates that the subject does not realize he or she is deviant during primary deviance. Secondary deviance often occurs as a defense or attack toward the societal reaction of the initial misbehavior, according to Florida State University. After two decades of study, Lemert concluded in the 1970s that social control causes deviance, rather than deviance happening first and societal reaction occurring next.Learn more about Psychology
Instinct, or innate behavior, is an action that is impulsive or immediate based on a particular trigger or circumstance. Learned behavior is an action that someone learns or develops over time through observation, education, training or experience. Many scientists believe that most human behaviors are a result of some level of both instinct and learned behavior.Full Answer >
Innate behavior is instinctual and genetic, while learned behavior is behavior that must be directly taught or learned from experience. Both types of behavior are present in the majority of animal species, including humans.Full Answer >
Normal behavior is behavior that is average and not out of the ordinary, while abnormal behavior is different from the majority of society, according to Psychology Today. There is a wide range of behaviors that are normal and behaviors that are abnormal.Full Answer >
Primary deviance refers to behavior inconsistent with societal norms and standards that people perform for short periods of time. Primary deviance appears in societies around the world, and expresses as minor violations. This deviant behavior might accompany a growth stage, such as adolescence, and terminates quickly, often without society attaching the label of deviance to individuals engaging in primary deviant activities.Full Answer >