Proactive interference causes people to forget knowledge and ideas that have been learned recently because of interference from old memories. On the other hand, retroactive interference occurs when recently learned information makes the mind forget previously learned information.Know More
Proactive interference sometimes occurs because the information a person is trying to learn heavily contradicts what the person has learned before. This frequently happens when people have set their minds on certain attitudes and behaviors, and the old memories stop them from embracing new attitudes.
Retroactive interference makes the human mind forget old information. Even though previously learned information remains stored in the brain, a person needs to retrieve it from the long-term memory. However, this is not always possible because the working memory is preoccupied with newly acquired information.
The theory of interference states that interference occurs during learning when the newly learned information interacts with previously learned information, affecting transfer between long-term memory and working memory. This implies that stored information remains in the brain but cannot be easily retrieved due to competition from newly acquired information. Forgetting things is often rooted in the difficulty of transferring information from the working memory to the long-term memory and the inability to recall information from the long-term memory.Learn more about Psychology
Temperament refers to a set of innate or inborn traits that organize a child's approach to the world, while personality is what arises within the individual. Personality is acquired on top of the temperament. Temperament can be viewed as an artist's canvas while personality can be viewed as the painting on the canvas.Full Answer >
The id includes primitive and instinctive behaviors, whereas the ego is the part of personality concerned with reality. Id and ego are two of the three elements of personality proposed by Sigmund Freud.Full Answer >
Reinforcement encourages behavior while punishment discourages it. Both develop learning through what is called operant conditioning, in which behaviors increase or decrease based on the type of result obtained.Full Answer >
Individualism focuses on empowering people through individual rights, but collectivism focuses on empowering people through collective rights. Individualists argue that self-reliance should be emphasized. Collectivists argue that governments and other organizations should ensure people have access to basic rights.Full Answer >