Reinforcement encourages behavior while punishment discourages it. Both develop learning through what is called operant conditioning, in which behaviors increase or decrease based on the type of result obtained.Know More
Edward Thorndike was a psychologist who first studied operant conditioning, which describes the learning that is based on the consequences of the learner. His work influenced that of B.F. Skinner, a behavioral psychologist who developed the terms reinforcement and punishment in terms of operant conditioning. Skinner's work showed that punishments tend to decrease the likelihood of specific behaviors while reinforcements tend to increase the likelihood of specific behaviors.
Both terms can be described in positive and negative terms. Positive reinforcement offers something desirable to increase positive behaviors, while negative reinforcement removes something undesirable to increase positive behaviors. Positive punishment offers something undesirable to reduce negative behaviors, while negative punishment removes something desirable to reduce negative behaviors.Learn more about Psychology
An example of vicarious reinforcement is when a toddler learns to use the bathroom on his own because he saw his older siblings do the same and get rewarded for it. Another example is when a child eats all of her dinner in order to receive dessert because she has watched her older sister eat the entire meal and earn dessert.Full Answer >
Negative reinforcement seeks to promote a desirable behavior by removing an aversive stimulus while positive punishment seeks to stop an unwanted behavior by applying an aversive stimulus. In order to be effective, both forms of conditioning must be consistent and the stimuli must be adequately adapted to the behavior in question.Full Answer >
Delusions are mostly false beliefs rooted in the mind that seem real, but are not. Hallucinations are sensory-driven incidents that involve hearing or seeing something that isn't reality based. People with dementia or schizophrenia are prone to experiencing either delusions or hallucinations.Full Answer >
Temperament refers to a set of innate or inborn traits that organize a child's approach to the world, while personality is what arises within the individual. Personality is acquired on top of the temperament. Temperament can be viewed as an artist's canvas while personality can be viewed as the painting on the canvas.Full Answer >