Reinforcement encourages behavior while punishment discourages it. Both develop learning through what is called operant conditioning, in which behaviors increase or decrease based on the type of result obtained.
Edward Thorndike was a psychologist who first studied operant conditioning, which describes the learning that is based on the consequences of the learner. His work influenced that of B.F. Skinner, a behavioral psychologist who developed the terms reinforcement and punishment in terms of operant conditioning. Skinner's work showed that punishments tend to decrease the likelihood of specific behaviors while reinforcements tend to increase the likelihood of specific behaviors.
Both terms can be described in positive and negative terms. Positive reinforcement offers something desirable to increase positive behaviors, while negative reinforcement removes something undesirable to increase positive behaviors. Positive punishment offers something undesirable to reduce negative behaviors, while negative punishment removes something desirable to reduce negative behaviors.Learn More
An example of continuous reinforcement is to put children in timeout every time they misbehave. Continuous reinforcement is simply a continuation of the same response to misbehavior every time it occurs.Full Answer >
Negative reinforcement seeks to promote a desirable behavior by removing an aversive stimulus while positive punishment seeks to stop an unwanted behavior by applying an aversive stimulus. In order to be effective, both forms of conditioning must be consistent and the stimuli must be adequately adapted to the behavior in question.Full Answer >
Individualism focuses on empowering people through individual rights, but collectivism focuses on empowering people through collective rights. Individualists argue that self-reliance should be emphasized. Collectivists argue that governments and other organizations should ensure people have access to basic rights.Full Answer >
The main difference between Freud and Erikson is their unique visions of what drives an individual's development. While Freud's theory is centered around basic needs and biological forces, Erikson emphasizes the importance of social and environmental factors.Full Answer >