In the fields of psychology and sociology, structuralism proposes that consciousness is best understood through the systematic study of the anatomy of the brain while functionalism suggests that cognitive processes were governed by the function of the mind. Structuralism emerged in Germany while functionalism started in the United States.
The key proponents for the school of structuralism were Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Bradford Titchener, while the influential figures who developed the school of functionalism were William James, G. Stanley Hall and James M. Cattell. Structuralists focused on "how" the mind is structured, while functionalists delved in "why" and "how" the brain functions.Learn More
The primary difference between a community and a society is that a community is limited to a specific geographic location, but a society can be made up of people who live in different places. Another difference is that a society is made up of direct and indirect social connections between people, but a community is made up of individuals who are more closely connected. For example, people who live in a town represent a community, whereas everyone who lives in the state the town is located in makes up a society.Full Answer >
The difference between values and norms is that the former are abstract thoughts while the latter are external actions. In sociology, a culture's values relate to commonly held beliefs about what is considered desirable and proper, while cultural norms are the established behaviors that reflect those values.Full Answer >
Prejudice refers to thoughts and attitudes a person holds toward a group of people, while discrimination refers to actual actions against such a group, as defined by the online Introduction to Sociology textbook from OpenStax College. Anti-discrimination laws exist to prevent discriminatory actions against any group of people.Full Answer >
B.F. Skinner believed that people are directly reinforced by positive or negative experiences in an environment and demonstrate learning through their altered behavior when confronted with the same scenario. Albert Bandura believed learning is not always measured by behavior and can even be done by watching someone else learn.Full Answer >