The "egwugwu ceremony" of the Igbo, or Ibo, people, a cultural group in the Umuofia region of Nigeria, is a judicial process whereby initiated males of the clan masquerade as the "egwugwu," or ancestral spirits, to pass judgment on other clan members for wrongdoings. The ceremony takes place in a special house that women are forbidden from entering.Know More
A description of the ceremony is given in the novel "Things Fall Apart" by Chinua Achebe. In the story, which is based on Achebe's own personal experiences, a dispute arises when a married woman leaves her physically abusive husband, in turn prompting the husband to demand compensation from her family. The egwugwu hear the man's case and order him to go to his wife and beg for her forgiveness. In addition, the husband is forced to offer gifts to her family, by way of atonement.
The Igbo's administering of justice in this way is presented in the novel as more effective and less corrupt than the supposedly more civilized brand of justice enforced by European colonists later on.
Nevertheless, it has been suggested that, in spite of this particular trial's outcome, the institution of the egwugwu is fundamentally misogynist. Not only are women forbidden from entering the egwugwu house, but at the end of this trial, one of the village elders wonders why such a "trivial" matter, that is, of a severe wife-beating, should have come before the egwugwu at all.Learn more about Cultures & Traditions
While some programs may vary slightly in the interpretation of the 12-step addiction recovery program, most follow a similar process, which includes 1) recognizing that there is a problem, 2) having hope or faith that returning to a healthy state is possible, 3) submitting to a higher power, whether it be a Christian God or other being, 4) recognizing any faults, 5) admitting any wrongdoings, past and present, 6) letting go of these faults and recognizing that it is time to change, 7) focusing on healing, hope, prayer and meditation, 8) making a list of those whom the addict may have wronged in the past, 9) personally making amends with the people on that list and letting them know that recovery is in progress, 10) taking responsibility for any actions, whether they be positive or negative, such as a possible relapse, 11) maintaining conscious contact with a higher power and 12) giving back to others. Typically, the 12-step program is altered for the person who is battling with addiction. For example, religion, personal background regarding the addiction and other factors may play a role in customizing the 12-step program to better serve the addict.Full Answer >
Examples of social norms are that people should bathe, wear appropriate clothing and use polite language. Social norms are unwritten rules less formal than law that may carry social penalties when violated, such as ostracism by a social group or being fired from work.Full Answer >
Most people in London eat a diet that consists of traditional English foods, typically emphasizing meat and starches, as well as foods from other cultures that have been made available by modern convenience, such as Indian curry.Full Answer >
Fashion has a big effect on the lives of people along with society as a whole by defining style and culture.. Fashion also plays a part in how people see themselves.Full Answer >