An example of a faulty causality, which is also known as a post-hoc fallacy, is arguing that the cause of something is that which preceded it, and which does not take into account any other possible causes. An argument based on a faulty causality also ignores the possibility of coincidence. An obvious example of a post-hoc fallacy would be to argue that because a rooster can be heard crowing before the sun rises, the rooster's crowing is therefore the cause of the sunrise.
Although an argument based on a faulty causality can be the result of a genuine lack of experience of the subject, or possibly ignorance, a post-hoc fallacy can also be employed by design. This can sometimes be the case in politics or in advertising when the connection between two things helps to further the cause or argument of the presenter.
Post-hoc fallacies are appealing, and often effective, because of the tendency of an audience to easily accept the idea that circumstances or events arise out of a sequence of events. This can be manipulated to serve the cause of painting something in a bad light based on its convenient occurrence prior to a negative outcome. In many situations, however, the causes may be much more complex than they appear on the surface.
The faulty causality belongs to the family of poor and deceptive arguments categorized as fallacies of logos. When presenting an argument to an audience through the appeal of logos, which is logic or reasoning, the ethical communicator will use only verifiable facts and evidence to back up their claims. One of the basics of ethical communication is the conscious avoidance of faulty or deceptive arguments, which can also include the misuse of the two classic rhetorical appeals of ethos and pathos.Learn More
An example of an argument from outrage is a speaker or writer relying upon their personal, subjective and overtly negative reaction to a situation as a means of persuading others to accept their point of view. A speaker might say, for example, "I was furious with my company's management when they failed to respond to my complaint, and we should all make it a priority to get these people replaced." This would be considered a non-academic and improper form of rhetoric, referred to as an ethical fallacy, because it is based on transferring the speaker's personal sense of outrage to others in an attempt to gain their support.Full Answer >
An example of a logical appeal is encouraging someone to quit smoking because of the noted health risks associated with smoking tobacco. Essentially, a logical appeal is used to convince someone a generally accepted truth is valid. Logical appeals are harder to dispute than other kinds of appeals, such as emotional appeals and ethical appeals, because they are a result of facts rather than feelings or opinions.Full Answer >
An irreversible chance is a change that is impossible to reverse; this is often seen in chemistry or physics as a change that can only go in one direction, notes TheFreeDictionary.com. For example, Tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone, which is an inhibitor of the enzyme chymotrypsin, is an example for irreversible change.Full Answer >
Evolution theory, developed by Charles Darwin, exchanged the concept of fixed species with the idea of evolution, made possible by the vehicle of natural selection. Evolution theory is often associated with Marxism and could explain the social theory due to the similarities between the two.Full Answer >